Feeding Preference and Habitat Association of Defassa Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa) in Nechisar National Park, Southern EthiopiaRead the full article
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Immunohistochemical Expression of AQP2 and HSP70 in Broiler Kidney Tissue Treated with Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Extract under Heat Exposure
The administration of plant extracts to broilers may be a way to mitigate the effects of heat stress. The importance of AQP2 and HSP70 compounds in maintaining the homeostasis of the chicken body when it is subjected to heat stress is well established. This study aims to determine the effect of giving the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Salix tetrasperma Roxb. on the immunohistochemical expression of AQP2 and HSP70 in exposed and unexposed broiler kidney tissue. This study used 36 samples of 28-day-old chicken kidneys. Chickens were kept in individual cages, provided with feed and drinking water ad libitum. The design used was a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 6 replications: (a) chickens were reared in conditions exposed to heat (HS + 0); (b) chickens were reared in conditions exposed to heat and given Salix extract at a dose of 50 mg/L drinking water (HS + 50); (c) chickens were reared under heat-exposed conditions and given Salix extract at a dose of 100 mg/L drinking water (HS + 100); (d) chickens were reared in conditions without exposure to heat (n-HS + 0); (e) chickens were reared in conditions without exposure to heat and given Salix extract at a dose of 50 mg/L drinking water (nHS + 50); and (f) chickens were reared in conditions exposed without exposure to heat and given 100 mg/L drinking water (nHS + 100) of Salix extract. Salix extract was given for 24 hours and was renewed every 6 hours. The results showed that giving Salix extract 100 mg/L in drinking water to chickens exposed to heat (HS + 100) reduced the value of the H/L ratio. Giving Salix extract 50–100 mg/L in drinking water caused an upregulated AQP2 expression; on the other hand, it downregulated HSP-70 expression, in chicken kidney tubules both exposed to heat stress and nonexposed to heat stress. In conclusion, exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens and giving Salix extract can increase the formation of aquaporin 2 compounds and suppress the formation of HSP70.
Ethnotherapeutic Uses and Phytochemical Composition of Physalis peruviana L.: An Overview
Background. Plant-derived medicines are widespread and continue to increase in traditional and modern medicine, especially in developing countries. Physalis peruviana L. is among the most used plants in conventional medication worldwide. This review aimed to highlight the ethnotherapeutic uses and phytochemical status of identified compounds in P. peruviana. Methods. Data were collected from Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, SciFinder, Science Direct, Scopus, the Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and any other helpful search engine using Physalis peruviana as the primary keyword. Results. Some countries, worldwide, use P. peruviana in their traditional medicine system to manage diverse ailments, mainly diseases and gastrointestinal tract disorders (25.33%). Leaf was the mostly used part (49.28%), prepared by decoction (31.58%) and overall administrated orally (53.57%) as the main route of admission. Around 502 phytoconstituents were identified in different plant parts, especially fruit (38.19%) ethanol/ethyl acetate extract. In most cases (36.17%), the solvent of the extract was not specified. Several phytochemical classes were found in the plant, especially terpenes (26.09%) and phenolic compounds (14.94%). Esters were also abundant (11.55%). In the terpenes category, carotenoids were the most abundant (11.15% followed by monoterpenes (8.76%) and diterpenes (3.18%). However, flavonoids (5.17%) followed by cinnamic acid derivatives (3.99%), monophenolic compounds (1.79%), and phenolic acids (1.33 M) are the most reported phenolic compounds. Hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) was the most cited (five times). Conclusion. P. peruviana plays an essential role in managing diseases in some countries and is rich in chemical compounds, which need to be isolated and investigated pharmacologically before clinical trials.
Prevalence and Distribution of Nonsyndromic Dental Anomalies in Children in Eastern Saudi Arabia: A Radiographic Study
Objectives. To report the prevalence and distribution of nonsyndromic dental anomalies in children in eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods. This retrospective records review study involved radiographic examination of 6–18 years old pediatric patients who attended the Dental Hospital of the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Four calibrated examiners recorded nonsyndromic dental anomalies from patients’ digital orthopantomograms (OPG). The anomalies recorded were related to tooth number, shape, and location. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and Fisher exact tests were used to report prevalence and differences by gender, nationality, and medical history at the 5% significance level. Results. Of 2226 reviewed patients’ records, 1897 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The study sample had equal distribution of males (52.6%) and females (47.4%) and comprised 81.2% Saudi children with a mean age of 8.8 ± 1.84 years. Most study subjects (97.8%) were in mixed dentition and 88.7% were healthy. The prevalence of dental anomalies was as follows: teeth rotations (24.5%), ectopically erupted teeth (6%), congenitally missing permanent teeth (5.4%), peg lateral (1.1%), supernumerary (0.5%), gemination (0.3%), and fusion (0.1%). No statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of dental anomalies by patients’ gender, medical history, and nationality ( value ≥0.05). Conclusion. This study showed that teeth rotations were the most common dental anomalies followed by ectopic eruptions and congenitally missing teeth. The study findings may guide dental practitioners to better diagnose and manage children with dental anomalies in eastern Saudi Arabia.
Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Translucence Monolithic Ceramics upon Various Thicknesses
Introduction. High-translucence ceramics have been used increasingly. This study evaluated the biaxial flexural strength of different ceramics as a result of varying thicknesses. Materials and Methods. Circular discs with varied thickness of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 mm were prepared from high-translucence yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (HTY-PSZ); Bruxzir® Anterior (Bc), and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) including Celtra® DUO (Cc) and VITA Suprinity® (Vc) (n = 15 discs/group). Biaxial flexural strength (σ) was evaluated utilizing piston-on-three-balls in a testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the microscopic structure. ANOVA and multiple comparisons were analyzed for significant differences (a = 0.05). Results. The mean ± sd value of σ (MPa) for thickness 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 mm was 672.66 ± 107.54, 655.93 ± 93.98, 589.01 ± 63.63, 624.89 ± 87.08, 618.82 ± 83.36, 672.64 ± 84.61, 659.81 ± 122.89, 632.79 ± 92.54, and 657.86 ± 73.17, for Bc; 477.64 ± 88.23, 496.39 ± 86.36, 461.56 ± 57.00, 450.26 ± 86.60, 468.28 ± 83.65, 472.45 ± 53.63, 453.05 ± 72.50, 462.67 ± 47.57, and 535.28 ± 84.33, for Cc; and 500.97 ± 76.36, 506.70 ± 87.76, 557.82 ± 62.78, 543.76 ± 87.29, 507.53 ± 86.09, 502.46 ± 64.75, 557.70 ± 80.91, 527.04 ± 80.78, and 499.88 ± 57.35, for Vc. A significant difference in flexural strength was indicated among groups (). Bc was significantly stronger than Cc and Vc (). Varying thickness did not have a significant influence on strength (). SEM revealed a tight arrangement of crystals for Bc and needle-like crystals diffusing in glass for Vc and Cc. Conclusion. Flexural strength of ceramics varied among types, but each retained strength equitably with varying thickness. HTY-PSZ was stronger than ZLS, but each was equally strong for thickness in the range of 0.4–2.0 mm.
The Relation among Teeth and Maxillary Dental Arch Dimensions with Anterior Teeth Angulation and Inclination
Objectives. This study aimed at finding out whether anterior teeth angulation and inclination have a relationship with the maxillary teeth and dental arch dimensions. Methods. Fifty study models with normal occlusion were selected from the archive of the Department of Orthodontics at Baghdad Dental Faculty. Maxillary dental arch width and length at different points were determined in addition to measuring anterior teeth angulation, inclination, crown thickness, overjet, overbite, and Bolton’s ratios. The unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test were used for data analysis. Results. No statistical gender differences were reported in all measurements except the dental arch widths and length where males had significantly higher mean values. Only the maxillary incisor’s inclination showed a direct weak significant correlation with the total arch length. Conclusions. The inclination of upper incisors had a minimal effect on increasing dental arch length.
Prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors among Instructors in Ethiopian Universities: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. In this globalized and high-tech era, the computer has become an integral part of daily life. A constant use of computer for 3 hours and more per day can cause computer vision syndrome (CVS), which is one of the leading occupational hazards of the 21st century. The visual difficulties are the most common health problems associated with excessive computer use. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CVS among instructors working in Ethiopian universities. Methods. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 university instructors in Ethiopia from February 02 to March 24, 2021. A structured and self-administered questionnaire prepared by Google Forms was shared among instructors through their e-mail addresses, Facebook, and Telegram accounts. Data cleanup and cross-checking were done before analysis using SPSS version 23. A multivariable logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with CVS using value <0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results. Of the total 416 participants, about 293 (70.4%) were reported to have CVS (95% CI: 65.9–74.5%), of which 54.6% were aged 24–33 years. Blurred vision, pain in and around the eye, and eye redness were the main symptoms reported. Working in third-established universities (AOR = 8.44, 95% CI: 5.47–21.45), being female (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.28–5.64), being 44 years old and above (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.31–5.70), frequently working on the computer (AOR = 5.51, 95% CI: 2.05–14.81), and sitting in bent back position (AOR = 8.10, 95% CI: 2.42–23.45) were the factors associated with computer vision syndrome. Conclusions. In this study, nearly seven-tenths of instructors in Ethiopian universities reported having symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Working in third-generation universities, being female, age, frequently working on the computer, and sitting in bent back position were statistically significant predictors in computer vision syndrome. Therefore, optimizing exposure time, addressing ergonomic hazards associated with computer usage through on-the-job and off-the-job training, and making the safety guidelines accessible for all university instructors would be critical to address the problem.