Palatable Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride Solid Dispersed Fast-Dissolving Films: Formulation and In Vitro and In Vivo CharacterizationRead the full article
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Analytical Solution to the Generalized Complex Duffing Equation
Future scientific and technological evolution in many areas of applied mathematics and modern physics will necessarily depend on dealing with complex systems. Such systems are complex in both their composition and behavior, namely, dealing with complex dynamical systems using different types of Duffing equations, such as real Duffing equations and complex Duffing equations. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to a complex Duffing equation. We extend the Krýlov–Bogoliúbov–Mitropólsky method for solving a coupled system of nonlinear oscillators and apply it to solve a generalized form of a complex Duffing equation.
The Potential of Hydroponic Kit-Based Growing on a Self-Fertigation System for Pagoda Mustard (Brassica narinosa L) Production
Agricultural land has been converted into settlements following the population growth in various parts of the country. The productivity of horticulture, particularly pagoda mustard (Brassica narinosa L), decreases with the narrowing of fields. The main milestone as a promising solution to overcoming this issue is applying the hydroponic technique. This study aims to analyze the potential of hydroponic kit-based growing on a self-fertigation system for pagoda mustard production. In contrast to general hydroponic, the proposed hydroponic kit is supported by a smart valve component as a unique novelty used for the automatic distribution of nutrients without electrical power (zero energy). The mustard seeds were sown on rockwool for two to three days in a dark room and placed in the sun for seventeen days. A total of 50 pagoda mustard seeds were arranged evenly on a self-fertigation system tray following a zig-zag planting pattern for forty days. The seed has the following morphological characteristics: average height of 22.88 cm, biomass width of 26.42 cm, root length of 23.4 cm, and weight of 241.5 g. Furthermore, the production requires a total fertigation consumption of 186 L (equal to 0.0935 L/plant day−1) with an actual crop coefficient between 0.01 and 0.54. The proposed system shows good performance for mustard growth with a uniformity value between 80 and 89%. Finally, hydroponic kit-based growing on a self-fertigation system can be applied in various areas to produce and maintain a sustainable food supply.
Freshwater-Derived Streptomyces: Prospective Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Biodegraders
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is widely used in industrial applications, such as construction and clothing, owing to its chemical, physical, and environmental resistance. Owing to the previous characteristics, PVC is the third most consumed plastic worldwide and, consequently, an increasing waste accumulation-related problem. The current study evaluated an in-house collection of 61 Actinobacteria strains for PVC resin biodegradation. Weight loss percentage was measured after the completion of incubation. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was subsequently performed using the PVC incubated with the three strains exhibiting the highest weight loss. GC-MS and ionic exchange chromatography analyses were also performed using the culture media supernatant of these three strains. After incubation, 14 strains had a PVC weight loss percentage higher than 50% in ISP-2 broth. These 14 strains were identified as Streptomyces strains. Strains 208, 250, and 290 showed the highest weight loss percentages (57.6–61.5% range). The thermal stability of PVC after bacterial exposure using these three strains was evaluated, and a modification of the representative degradation stages of nonincubated PVC was observed. Additionally, GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of aromatic compounds in the inoculated culture media, and ionic exchange chromatography showed chloride release in the supernatant. A mathematical relation between culture conditions and PVC weight loss was also found for strains 208 and 290, showing an accuracy up to 97.99%. These results highlight the potential of the freshwater-derived Streptomyces strains as candidates for the PVC biodegradation strategy and constitute the first approach to a waste management control scale-up process.
Ecological Survey of the Peridomestic Sand Flies of an Endemic Focus of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the South-East of Morocco
Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by Phlebotominae sand flies. An entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Zagora Province. Our work allowed us to establish an inventory of sand flies to study potential vectors of leishmaniasis and to compare the composition and the specific abundance of different endemic stations. The sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps during the month of July 2019 in the ten studied villages. The results indicate the presence of thirteen species, belonging to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Phlebotomus papatasi was the predominant species (46.65%) followed by Ph. alexandri (17%), Ph. longicuspis (11.55%), Ph. bergeroti (1.53%) and Ph. sergenti (1.27%). Phlebotomus kazeruni (0.03%) was rare, and only one female was captured in Ifred. Sergentomyia schwetzi (8.69%) was the most prevalent species in the Sergentomyia genus followed closely by Se. fallax (6.84%). Sergentomyia africana was present with a proportion of (3.86%) followed by Se. clydei (1.96%). Sergentomyia dreifussi (0.46%), Se. antennata (0.08%), and Se. minuta (0.08%) were very limited. Phlebotomus papatasi, Ph. alexandri, Ph. bergeroti, Ph. longicuspis, Ph. sergenti, Se. schwetzi, Se. clydei, and Se. fallax are constant species, being present at least in 50% of the stations (occurrence> 50%). Common species (25%–49%) were Se. minuta and Se. africana and rare species were Ph. kazeruni and Se. antennata with a very limited distribution (occurrence <12%). The greatest species richness was found in Ksar Mougni and Ifred with the occurrence of 11 species, but overall, it was high (>9 species) in most of the villages. The Shannon–Wiener index was high (H′ > 1) in eight localities (Ksar Mougni, Tassaouante, Bleida, ZaouiteLeftah, Ifred, Timarighine, Ait Oulahyane, and Ait Ali Ouhassou). The high value of this index is in favor of the ZaouiteLeftah locality (Shannon–Wiener index = 1.679) which is explained by the presence of a stand dominated by Ph. papatasi. In order to avoid exposure to infections, a good epidemiological surveillance and vector with rodent control measures must be well maintained. Awareness campaigns are also required and must be conducted for better knowledge of the disease.
Exploring the Knowledge and Attitude of the Taxi Drivers in the Field of Traffic Rules and Regulations
Background. In all countries, the knowledge of driving guidelines is the most important and critical mechanism to ensure the safety of drivers. Naturally, it is expected that more knowledge and attitude towards driving laws would result in fewer driving violations. The aim of this research is to investigate both the knowledge and attitude of taxi drivers in the field of traffic rules and regulations in Shiraz city, Fars province, in 2019. Methods. This research is a cross-sectional study, based on which about 1077 taxi drivers were randomly chosen in Shiraz city, Iran. The data collection tool is a demographic information questionnaire and a questionnaire on driving guidance. After collecting these questionnaires, the obtained data were entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed by descriptive analyses (mean, standard deviation, and percentage). Afterward, the independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient are implemented and investigated. Results. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge score in drivers were about 26.8 ± 55.2 while the mean and standard deviation of drivers’ attitude were about 98.16 ± 59.3. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the variables studied (R = −0.07; ) and drivers’ attitudes toward driving (). Conclusion. The results of this research show that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of taxi drivers in Shiraz city are moderate in terms of driving rules and regulations; moreover, among taxi drivers of increasing age, the average score of knowledge was lower.
Composting for a More Sustainable Palm Oil Waste Management: A Systematic Literature Review
Palm oil production has increased significantly, specifically in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, this growth has raised environmental concerns due to the high discharge of empty fruit bunches, palm oil mill effluents, and other solid wastes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the treatment of palm oil waste by composting and systematically review insights into its application through a systematic literature review approach. Among the 1155 articles, a total of 135 were selected for a systematic review of palm oil waste management developments and their applications, while 14 were used for determining compost quality according to the criteria and requirements established in the systematic literature review. Moreover, using Egger’s test, JAMOVI 1.6.23 software was used to analyze random effects models with 95% confidence intervals and publication bias. The results showed that palm oil waste was optimally treated by composting, which is considered as a sustainable technology for protecting the environment, human safety, and economic value. The in-vessel method with a controlled composting chamber is the best system with a minimum time of 14 days. However, it requires tight control and provides a final product with a high microbial colony form outdoors and indoors compared to the windrow system. This study is useful to see the bias of research results and helps to find new studies that need to be developed, especially in this case related to the management of palm oil waste into organic compost fertilizer and its application methods in the field. It is suggested that applying palm oil waste or compost is mainly performed by mulching. In contrast, new challenges for better processing to produce organic fertilizers and applicable technologies for sustainable waste management are recommended. The method must be affordable, efficient, and practical, combining compost quality with maximum nutrient recovery.