Article of the Year 2022
Long-Term Follow-Up of Dogs and Cats after Stabilization of Thoracolumbar Instability Using 2-0 UniLock ImplantsRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
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Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry Farming: A Look Back at Environmental Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry Farms during the Growing and Resting Periods
During the production cycle of poultry farms, pathogens may remain in the next cycle of rearing young chickens. This study was conducted at three industrial chicken farms (A, B, and C) in central Thailand. Results showed that the percentages of E. coli during the resting period in farms A, B, and C were 28.6, 53.8, and 7.8, respectively, and those during the growing period were 45, 68.8, and 75. The most common resistant patterns during the resting period in all farms were AML-AMP-SXT and AML-AMP-DO-SXT, and those during the growing period were AML-AMP and AML-AMP-SXT. The locations of blaTEM-positive E. coli isolates from the inside houses (inside buildings) of all farms included cloacal swabs, floors, water nipples, pan feeders, and husks, whereas that from the outside environment included boots, wastewater, soil, and water from cooling pads and tanks. Our results indicate that the percentage of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its pattern depend on the husbandry period and the strictness of biosecurity. Moreover, our findings derived from samples gathered from broiler farms between 2013 and 2015 align with those of the current studies, highlighting persistent trends in E. coli resistance to various antimicrobial agents. Therefore, enhancing biosecurity measures throughout both the resting and growing periods is crucial, with a specific focus on managing raw materials, bedding, breeding equipment, and staff hygiene to reduce the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in poultry farms.
Investigation of the Proportion of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Sheep and Goat Milk
Despite the implementation of brucellosis eradication programs in Iran, this disease is still endemic and highly prevalent among ruminants in this country. The infection of small ruminants with Brucella abortus may play a significant role in the continuation of brucellosis among the herds of ruminants. This study investigated the proportion of B. abortus and Brucella melitensis in 150 samples of sheep and goat’s raw milk which were obtained from Lorestan and Hamadan provinces in the western part of Iran using the PCR method. The results revealed that among the Brucella spp. positive samples, 26.5% and 73.4% of the samples were infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. The incidence rates of B. abortus among the sheep and goats samples were 6.8% and 12.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference between goats and sheep regarding the proportion of B. abortus. Three samples (2%) (2 goats and one sheep) were simultaneously infected with both B. melitensis and B. abortus. This article renews our knowledge about the causative agent of brucellosis in small ruminants and shows that B. abortus has a relatively high prevalence among those animals in the western regions of Iran, and its role as one of the main factors of abortion among small ruminants should not be ignored. The information provided in the present study is important for the surveillance program, as eradication programs and strategies to prevent the spread of B. abortus among small ruminants that have not been vaccinated against this microorganism may be adapted accordingly.
A Review on Treatment of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency: Characteristics, Limitations, and Challenges of Stem Cell versus ExosomeTherapy
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a complex disorder that can result in varying degrees of infertility. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy and its derivatives, such as exosomes, have been introduced as novel strategies for the treatment of POI. This review discusses the features, limitations, and challenges of MSC and exosome therapy in the treatment of POI and provides readers with new insights for comparing and selecting chemical agents, optimizing doses, and other factors involved in study design and treatment strategies. MSC therapy has been shown to improve ovarian function in some animals with POI, but it can also have side effects such as high cost, time-consuming processes, limited lifespan and cell sources, loss of original characteristics during in vitro proliferation, dependence on specific culture environments, potential immune reactions, unknown therapeutic mechanisms, etc. However, exosome therapy is a newer therapy that has not been studied as extensively as MSC therapy, but that it has shown some promise in animal studies. The evidence for the effectiveness of MSC and exosome therapy is still limited, and more research is needed to determine whether these therapies are effective and safe for women with POI. This study presents a new perspective for researchers to advance their research in the fields of cell-based and cell-free therapies.
Dynamics of Feline Coronavirus and FIP: A Compartmental Modeling Approach
The investigation of infectious agents invading human and nonhuman populations represents a rich research domain within the framework of mathematical biology, captivating the interest of scientists across various disciplines. In this work, we examine the endemic equilibrium of feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis by using a modified susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemiological model. We incorporate the concept of mutations from FCoV to FIP to enrich our analysis. We establish that the model, when subjected to reasonable parameter ranges, supports an endemic equilibrium wherein the FCoV group dominates. To demonstrate the stability of the equilibria under typical parameters and initial conditions, we employ the model SCF presented by Dobie in 2022 (Dobie, 2022). We ascertain that the equilibrium values reside within the interior domains of stability. Additionally, we displayed perturbed solutions to enhance our understanding. Remarkably, our findings align qualitatively with existing literature, which reports the prevalence of seropositivity to FCoV among stray cats (Tekelioglu et al. 2015, Oğuzoğlu et al. 2010, Pratelli 2008, Arshad et al. 2004).
Analytical Validation of MINI-PET as Point-of-Care for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Measure in Horses
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a widely used diagnostic assay in human medicine but nowadays poorly applied in veterinary medicine. This test measures the speed (millimeters per hour) at which red blood cells settle in a whole anticoagulated blood tube. In human medicine, high ESR values are associated with various disorders, including infections, rheumatoid arthritis, oncologic diseases, and other inflammatory conditions. The ESR can also be influenced by some factors such as age and gender. In veterinary medicine, the ESR with the Westergren manual method was almost forgotten over the years due to blood consumption and long turn-around time. The instrument MINI-PET, using a modified Westergren method, does not require blood consumption or release waste product and recently has been applied in canine medicine. The aims of the study in the horse were as follows: to establish the appropriate time to read the ESR with the Westergren reference method; to compare the MINI-PET ESR results with the reference technique; to assess the ESR reference intervals with MINI-PET; and to establish the ESR stability from collection at different time points by MINI-PET. Using 150 horses, we established 60 minutes as the appropriate time for ESR reading with the Westergren method. Moreover, ESR results obtained in 8 minutes with MINI-PET showed a good correlation with the Westergren ESR. Reference intervals (RIs) with MINI-PET were established in mm/h for the healthy horses (geldings 18.6–100.1; stallions, 13.8–55.7; and mares 1–73.7) according to the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines. In addition, the ESR stability from the blood collection time was evaluated in the MINI-PET on 15 horses: at room temperature, ESR is stable up to 8 hours and at 4°C up to 24 hours. In conclusion, MINI-PET represents a rapid and reliable tool for measuring ESR in horses, offering a valid option to replace the traditional manual technique.
The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome (Extracellular Microvesicles and Exosomes) in Animals’ Musculoskeletal and Neurologic-Related Disorders
The advances in regenerative medicine are very important for the development of medicine and the discovery of stem cells has shown a greater capacity to raise the level of therapeutic quality while their use becomes more accessible, especially in their mesenchymal form. In veterinary medicine, it is not different. The use of those cells, as well as recent advances related to the use of their extracellular vesicles, demonstrates a great opportunity to enhance therapeutic methods and ensure more life quality for patients, which can be in clinical or surgical treatments. Knowing the advances in these modalities and the growing clinical and surgery research and demands for innovations in orthopedic and neurology medicines, this paper aimed to review the literature about the methodologies of use and applications such as the pathways of action and the advances that were postulated for microvesicles and exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in veterinary medicine, especially for musculoskeletal disorders and related injuries.