Veterinary Medicine International
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Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision113 days
Acceptance to publication12 days
CiteScore2.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.610
Impact Factor3.1

Prospective Application of the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) as a Possible Inflammatory Marker in Feline Patients

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 Journal profile

Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.

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Research Article

Comparing Intradermal (ID) Rabies Vaccination with Conventional IM Regimen on Humoral Response of New Zealand White Rabbits for the Production of Animal-Derived Polyclonal Antibodies

In developing countries, it is imperative to implement cost-effective strategies for animal humoral response development in the production of antiserum. This study compared the effect of immunization regimens on the humoral immune response of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (N = 24) using cell culture rabies vaccine (CCRV) through intradermal (ID) and traditional intramuscular (IM) routes. The rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: (a) IPC-R2 with a two-site one-week regimen; (b) TRC-R3 with a two-site twenty-eight-day regimen; and (c) Alternate-R4 with a four-site one-week regimen. These regimens were then compared to the standard IM schedule of five doses of rabies vaccine administered at days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 in control group R-1. The results were evaluated at days 14 and 35 postvaccination using rabies-specific Platelia II™ ELISA kit method. The results showed a better response to the ID regimen than the IM route regarding immunogenicity and volume consumption of the vaccine. The three selected ID regimes showed significantly higher mean titer values than the control IM regimen group R-1 (). The study aims to explore simple immunization strategies to enhance the RV-specific antibody titers for immunization donor animals. This method would produce polyclonal antibodies and strengthen local production of polyclonal antibodies in Pakistan to deal with vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) shortage, thus providing effective postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for better control of rabies in developing countries.

Review Article

Toxoplasmosis and Chlamydophilosis in Small Ruminant Farms in Cameroon: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Perception of Zoonotic Risks of Farmers

Zoonotic abortive diseases represent a significant health and economic risk for national public health. This cross-sectional survey was conducted from April to October 2021 among 200 selected small ruminant farmers in the three northern regions of Cameroon. Data collection was done through questionnaires administered by exchange with the herder, and responses were coded and recorded on an Excel spreadsheet. The data were then analyzed with R software, version 2.13.0. An ANOVA test was used to assess significant differences in mean of Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Perception of zoonotic risks (KAPP) scores between regions. Pearson correlations were used to calculate the association between KAPP scores within regions. Small ruminant farmers surveyed had low mean scores for knowledge of abortive toxoplasmosis and chlamydophilosis (0.1 ± 0.2), desirable attitude (0.32 ± 0.07), appropriate practice (0.36 ± 0.13) in managing abortion, and positive perception of zoonotic risks of toxoplasmosis and chlamydophilosis in small ruminants (0.12 ± 0.33), respectively. KAPP was significantly () and positively associated with knowledge (r = 0.98) and risk perception (r = 0.99). However, attitudes (r = 0.06), practices (r = 0.05), and risk perception of toxoplasmosis (r = 0.07) and chlamydophilosis (r = 0.08) were not associated with farmers’ knowledge. This study revealed significant knowledge gaps, low levels of desired attitudes, and high-risk behavioral practices. These results therefore call for capacity building of health professionals and farmers to better integrate the One Health concept in the management of neglected zoonotic diseases.

Research Article

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Hemotropic Mycoplasma in Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis) of Northern Thailand

Hemotropic mycoplasmas, also known as hemoplasmas, are parasitic bacteria that infect red blood cells, potentially leading to varying degrees of anemia across numerous mammalian species, including nonhuman primates. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of hemoplasma infection and identify the species involved among free-ranging Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) inhabiting northern Thailand. A total of 133 blood samples were collected from Assamese macaques in Chiang Rai province, Thailand, and subjected to screening for hemoplasma infection utilizing nested PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were subsequently analyzed through nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for putative species identification. Current study results revealed that 17.3% (23/133; 95% CI 11.29-24.81) of Assamese macaques tested positive for hemoplasma infection using the nested PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA sequences derived from hemoplasma isolates in Assamese macaques exhibited 99% homology, forming a cluster within the same phylogenetic clade as “Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae,” previously identified in long-tailed macaques, rhesus macaques, and Japanese macaques. These findings suggest the presence of “Ca. M. haematomacacae” not only in long-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques but also in Assamese macaques in Thailand. To our knowledge, this marks the first molecular detection of “Ca. M. haematomacacae” in Assamese macaques in Thailand. These results hold significance as they enhance our understanding of hemoplasma infection distribution among macaque populations in Thailand.

Research Article

Semiquantitative Risk Evaluation Reveals Drivers of African Swine Fever Virus Transmission in Smallholder Pig Farms and Gaps in Biosecurity, Tanzania

African swine fever (ASF) has remained persistent in Tanzania since the early 2000s. Between 2020 and 2021, pig farms in twelve districts in Tanzania were infected with ASF, and ≥4,804 pigs reportedly died directly due to the disease with disruption to livelihoods. We conducted semiquantitative field investigations and rapid risk assessment (RRA) to understand the risk factors and drivers of ASF virus (ASFV) amplification and transmission in smallholder pig farms, and determine the gaps in biosecurity through hazard profiling, focus group discussions and expert opinion. Outbreaks were connected by road and aligned along the pig product value chain and reported in the northern, central, and southern parts of Tanzania. The patterns of outbreaks and impacts differed among districts, but cases of ASF appeared to be self-limiting following significant mortality of pigs in farms. Movement of infected pigs, movement of contaminated pig products, and fomites associated with service providers, vehicles, and equipment, as well as the inadvertent risks associated with movements of animal health practitioners, visitors, and scavengers were the riskiest pathways to introduce ASFV into smallholder pig farms. Identified drivers and facilitators of risk of ASFV infection in smallholder pig farms were traders in whole pigs, middlemen, pig farmers, transporters, unauthorized animal health service providers, and traders in pork. All identified pig groups were susceptible to ASFV, particularly shared adult boars, pregnant and lactating sows, and other adult females. The risk of ASF for smallholder pig farms in Tanzania remains very high based on a systematic risk classification. The majority of the farms had poor biosecurity and no single farm implemented all identified biosecurity measures. Risky practices and breaches of biosecurity in the pig value chain in Tanzania are profit driven and are extremely difficult to change. Behavioural change communication must target identified drivers of infections, attitudes, and practices.

Research Article

Canine Mammary Tumors as a Potential Model for Human Breast Cancer in Comparative Oncology

Clinical and molecular similarities between canine mammary tumors (CMTs) and human breast cancer (HBC) propel scientists to further study their application in comparative oncology as a model for human breast cancer. In total, 64 canine mammary tumors were selected to study the most common markers, which are applicable for human breast cancer treatment, including estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu), Ki67, and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the protein expression. The Veterinary Nottingham Prognostic Index (Vet-NPI) was also computed. Moreover, univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). The results demonstrated that Ki67 was strongly expressed in the triple-negative tumors, and Ki67 protein expression continuously increased over the increase of Cox2 protein expression (). Further analysis revealed a significant difference among canine mammary subtypes and Vet-NPI, in which triple-negative tumors displayed the highest mean score compared to other subtypes (). In addition, the multivariable analysis revealed that the regional mastectomy procedure (adjusted HR = 2.78 (1.14–6.8)), the triple-negative tumors (adjusted HR = 48.08 (7.74–298.8)), strong Ki67 protein expression group (adjusted HR = 7.88 (2.02–30.68)), and strong Cox2 protein expression group (adjusted HR = 29.35 (5.18–166.4)) demonstrated significantly lower disease-free survival rates compared to other corresponding groups. Overall, canine mammary tumors showed strong similarities to human breast cancer in terms of clinical and molecular aspects; therefore, they could be suggested as a model for human breast cancer in comparative oncology.

Research Article

Molecular Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Small Mammals and Infesting Ticks in Laikipia County, Kenya

Anaplasmosis is a set of disease conditions of various mammals caused by bacteria species of the genus Anaplasma. These are sub-microscopic, Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that infect both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Significant species that infect domestic and wildlife animals include Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma mesaeterum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Although A. phagocytophilum has a widespread distribution, there are only a few epidemiological reports from sub-Saharan Africa. This study focused on molecular detection and characterization of A. phagocytophilum in small mammals and their infesting ticks in Laikipia County, Kenya. A total of 385 blood and 84 tick archival samples from small mammals (155 females and 230 males) were analyzed. The blood samples were subjected to a nested PCR-HRM melt analysis using species-specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The ticks were also subjected to nested PCR-HRM involving 16S rRNA gene primers. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 19 out of 385 samples using species-specific 16S rRNA gene primers giving a prevalence of 4.9% for A. phagocytophilum. Analysis of the tick’s samples using 16S rRNA gene species-specific primers also detected A. phagocytophilum in 3 samples from Haemaphysalis leachi ticks (3/84) equivalent to prevalence of 3.6%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA PCR products confirmed A. phagocytophilum in small mammals and ticks’ samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the haplotype from this study demonstrated a close ancestral link with strains from Canis lupus familiaris, Alces alces, Apodemus agrarius, and ticks (Haemaphysalis longicornis) reported in Europe, China, and Africa. Comparison was also made with a known pathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant HA and a nonpathogenic variant 1 that were clustered into a distinctive clade different form haplotypes detected in this study. All the haplotype sequences for A. phagocytophilum from this study were submitted and registered in GenBank under the accession numbers OQ308965–OQ308976. Our study shows that small mammals and their associated ticks harbor A. phagocytophilum. The vector competence for H. leachi in A. phagocytophilum transmission should further be investigated.

Veterinary Medicine International
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision113 days
Acceptance to publication12 days
CiteScore2.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.610
Impact Factor3.1
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