Article of the Year 2021
The Impact of Inulin and a Novel Synbiotic (Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 1026 and Inulin) on the Development and Functional State of the Gastrointestinal Canal of CalvesRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Comparative Study of the Immune Response Induced by an Argentinian Classical Strain of IBDV in Two Chicken Breeds
The hybrid chicken Negra INTA, which originated at the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), is the product of the cross between Barred Plymouth Rock females and Rhode Island Red males, and it is used as a laying hen for egg consumption. It has been characterized by productive parameters, but the characterization from an immunological perspective has not been done yet. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious viral disease that affects the bursa of Fabricius. Although most chickens are regularly vaccinated against IBDV, this virus still generates negative impacts on production with significant economic losses. The aim of the present work was to compare the immune responses of the Negra INTA hybrid and the White Leghorn layer line to the infection with a field isolate of IBDV. Four-week-old chickens were infected with a single dose of IBDV and at 3, 5, 7, and 30 days postinfection (dpi), bursae were removed, and different parameters were evaluated. Results showed that the reduction of the bursa body (BB) ratio and the histopathological damage were maximum on day 7 postinfection (pi). The viral load was greater in the hybrid Negra INTA at 5 dpi. The humoral immune response between both breeds was similar, although more animals from the commercial line showed higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that Bu+ bursal lymphocytes reached a minimum at 7 dpi. Meanwhile, T cell infiltration measured by the percentage of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells in the bursa was at its maximum at 5 dpi. To our knowledge, this work describes for the first time the pathogenesis and the immune response caused by an Argentinian IBDV isolate in two different chicken lines.
Prevalence of Campylobacter Species on Cattle Breeding Farms in Zimbabwe
Infertility remains a challenge in breeding herds in most developing countries. In the current study, 104 penile sheath washes were collected from bulls of different breeds and ages from different cattle breeding farms in Zimbabwe. The samples were submitted to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Zimbabwe, for screening of Campylobacter species using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on the PCR results, the animal-level prevalence was 25.96% (range 0–73.98%) and all the positive samples came from four (57.14%) of the 7 herds tested. The current study shows that Campylobacter spp. could be a causative agent in infertility observed in a number of herds in Zimbabwe. Strategies for treatment and control of campylobacteriosis should be enhanced in the country. More research and surveillance are needed to determine the epidemiology of Campylobacter species in Zimbabwean cattle herds.
Prevalence of Bovine Schistosomiasis and Associated Risk Factors in Tis Abay District, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of cattle that is caused by trematode worms and results in morbidity, mortality, reduced fertility, and productivity. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine schistosomiasis in Tis Abay district, Amhara, Ethiopia. Fecal samples were collected from 384 randomly selected cattle and examined using the sedimentation technique. Results. Of the total examined fecal samples, 13.02% (50/384) of the samples were positive for Schistosoma bovis eggs. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was highly reported in Dasra (22.4%), which was statistically significant (). The prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis was higher in females (16.9%), crossbred cattle (17.1%), poorly conditioned cattle (37.1%), extensively managed cattle (17.9%), and cattle greater than 5 years old (23.1%). The multivariate analysis of factors revealed that study area, age, breed, body condition, and management system have a significant role () in the prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis. Conclusion. Schistosoma infection is a problem for cattle in the study region. Therefore, farmers should be aware of the transmission of the disease, prevention, and control of snails.
Ameliorative and Renoprotective Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Blood Sugar, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine Levels, and the Islets of Langerhans Weight in Diabetic Mice
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease or disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels as well as impaired carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism due to insulin function insufficiency. Insulin deficiency can be caused by impaired or deficient insulin production by Langerhans beta cells in the pancreas or by a lack of responsiveness of the body's cells to insulin. This study aims to the effects of electrostimulation on the ameliorative (improves disease manifestations) or renoprotective (protects the kidneys) in a diabetic rat model using noninvasive (electrical stimulation with the magnetic and nonmagnetic electrode) and invasive (using needles) methods. This study used 25 female rats, with a normal control group (KN), a diabetes control group (KD), a needle treatment group (A), an electro-stimulator treatment group with a magnetic electrode (M), and an ES group with a nonmagnetic electrode (ES) (L). The electro-stimulator used AES-05 with a magnetic field strength of 90 mT at two acupoints, Pishu (BL20) and Shenshu (BL23). The treatment was administered 12 times in one month with a therapy time of 6.6 minutes per session. Body weight and blood sugar levels were compared before and after the treatment. After treatment, the diameter of the islets of Langerhans, as well as levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), was measured. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed (α = 0.05). The results of this study showed that electrical stimulation treatments with needle-invasive, noninvasive magnetic electrodes, and nonmagnetic electrodes significantly reduced diabetic rats’ blood glucose levels before and after the treatment. The analysis of the diameter of the islets of Langerhans revealed a significant difference between the treatment groups. The analysis of creatinine levels revealed a significant difference between groups, but creatinine levels in the group with the magnetic electrode (0.58 ± 0.17 mg/dL) were not significantly different from the control group (0.58 ± 0.07 mg/dL). The BUN test results revealed a significant difference compared with the diabetic control group, but no significant difference with the magnetic electrode treatment group. Conclusion. Based on the results, the most effective therapy for diabetes is a noninvasive method with magnetic (M) electrodes.
Evaluation of Three Human-Use Glucometers for Blood Glucose Measurement in Dogs
Background. Glucometers or portable sensors are used to quickly measure blood glucose at low cost. They are used in veterinary practice and by guardians to monitor diseases that require, as in diabetes mellitus. However, not all commercially available glucometers (human and veterinary) are suitable for this purpose. Hypotheses/Objectives. The objective was to evaluate the analytical and clinical precision of three human-use portable glucometers. Animals. This study evaluated 115 samples in three glycemic ranges (hypoglycemia, normoglycemia, and hyperglycemia) from 82 dogs recruited from veterinary services. Methods. The portable glucometers are the FreeStyle Freedom Lite®, FreeStyle Optium Neo®, and On Call Plus® models. Glucometer results were compared with the enzymatic colorimetric glucose oxidase laboratory reference method. Using descriptive and comparative statistical analysis, there were correlations between these devices and the standard method, ISO 15197 : 2003 and ISO 15197 : 2013 standards, and error grid analysis. Results. Only the Freedom Lite® device observed a statistical difference when compared with the reference method. Despite the underestimated glucose concentrations assessed with humane devices, all three tested herein showed a positive coefficient. However, none of these achieved all ISO guidelines. Conclusion and Clinical Importance. Although there was wide use of portable humane devices for dog glucose measurements on routine, the results are generally inferior when compared to the reference method. The FreeStyle Optium Neo® glucometer obtained the best result and is therefore the best option among the glucometers evaluated; however, for the first attendance on veterinary routine, all three glucometers had a satisfactory glucose measurement until the reference method availability.
Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis in Ruminants and Studying the Effect of Novel Green Synthetized Nanoparticles as One of the Alternative Treatments
Mastitis is an important disease in dairy animals worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common causes of clinical and subclinical intramammary infections. In the current study, we isolated bacteria from 150 mastitic milk samples. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the methicillin resistance genes in S. aureus to detect the occurrence of MRSA isolates. Green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) using aqueous leaf extracts of Artemisia herb Alba (A. herb Alba TiO2 NPs). The antibacterial efficacy of these nanoparticles was evaluated (in vitro and in vivo) against collected MRSA isolates using the disc diffusion method and SPF rats. Out of 150 mastitic milk samples, the frequency of S. aureus was 38 (25.3%), that of E. coli was 45 (30%), that of Klebsiella spp. Was 7 (4.7%), and that of Streptococcus spp. Was 11 (7.3%). Among 38 positive isolates of S. aureus, MRSA was 16 (42.1%) by antimicrobial sensitivity testing (AST) and 14 (38.8%) by multiplex PCR. The MRSA isolates were shown to have 100% resistance to penicillin and methicillin, 87.5% resistance to gentamicin, 50% resistance to cefoxitin and amoxicillin, and 75% resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sublactam with low resistance against erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin by AST, respectively. A. herb Alba TiO2 NP formation was observed by changing the colour from white to dark green. The UV spectrum revealed absorbance peaks at 240–250 nm, and their sizes ranged from 42–66 nm and 11 to 45 nm by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A. herb Alba TiO2 NP suspensions were evaluated against MRSA, with the highest zone of inhibition (43 ± 0.45 mm) at a concentration of 40 μg/ml. Hematological parameters and histological examination after oral administration of 20 mg/kg of A. herb Alba TiO2 NPs indicated that A. herb Alba TiO2 NPs can be used as a new antimicrobial against resistant bacteria (MRSA) with consideration of the dose and methods of synthesis of plant-based compounds.