Article of the Year 2020
Clinical and Diagnostic Significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Its Isoenzymes in AnimalsRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Ghrelin Immunoreactive Cell Amounts in the Abomasum in 4-Month-Old Calves by Feeding Different Amounts of Prebiotics and New Synbiotics
The study aim was to determine prebiotic (inulin) and new synbiotic (inulin and Enterococcus faecium) varied dosage effects, during food breakdown-abomasum immunoreactive (IR) cell amount and cold carcass weight. Ghrelin is synthesized in the fundus region of the stomach. In the gastrointestinal system, ghrelin affects multiple functions, including secretion of gastric acid, gastric motility, and pancreatic protein output. The study consisted of 49 Holstein male calves (23 ± 5 days old, 50 ± 5 kg). Control and experimental groups were differentiated only with the additive amount added to the morning food source. Three prebiotic groups were fed Jerusalem artichoke flour (inulin content increased by 50%) in three amounts: 6 g (lowest) PreG6, 12 g (medium) PreG12, and 24 g (highest) PreG24. Three synbiotic groups were added 0.25 g of prebiotic Enterococcus faecium (2109 CFU/g) to the respective prebiotic, obtaining a new synbiotic (SynG6, SynG12, and SynG24). Calves were slaughtered after 56 days to obtain abomasum samples for ghrelin IR cell examination, and carcass weight was determined. It shows that ghrelin IR cell count in the abomasum was () reduced in 6g and 12g inulin dosage, but carcass weight was significantly () higher for PreG12 and PreG24 () and then for CoG (CoG 42.6 kg; PreG12 51.4 kg; and PreG24 54.0 kg) and () for SynG12 and SynG24 (SynG12 52.3 kg and SynG24 49.6 kg), which indicates longer satiety and more wholesome breakdown of the food uptake. It was concluded that ghrelin IR cells in 12-week-old calves are more abundant in the fundus region. Medium- and high-dosage prebiotic inulin feeding to the calves improves overall food digestion, allowing for longer satiety and higher cold carcass weight without increasing food amount. Adding synbiotic 0.25 g Enterococcus faecium (2109 CFU/g (Protexin, UK)) to inulin (produced in Latvia LTD „Herbe”) does not improve the results of this prebiotic.
Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Leptospira interrogans Serogroup Sejroe Serovar Hardjo in Dairy Farms in and around Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on selected dairy farms in and around Jimma town, Oromia, southwestern Ethiopia from November 2019 to May 2020 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo). Furthermore, information was gathered on individual animal and herd level by using pretested semistructured questionnaire to assess associated risk factors. A stratified and simple random sampling procedure was used for the selection of dairy farms and individual animal’s, respectively. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) was used in this study to detect antibody against L. hardjo. Out of 384 animal’s sera, 94 animals were seropositive against L. hardjo antibodies. From 77 dairy farms selected for the study, 57 of them were distinguished as positive for L. hardjo. The overall seroprevalence of leptospirosis caused by L. hardjo was 24.48% (95% CI: 20.18%–28.78%) and 74.03% (95% CI: 64.23%–83.82%) at individual animal and farm level, respectively. The result of multilogistic regression analysis revealed that management system ( < 0.05; OR = 4.25 (95% CI: 2.31–7.82)), hygienic status of the farm ( < 0.05; OR = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.20–0.61)), age of animals ( < 0.05; OR = 8.30 (95% CI: 1.87–36.89)), history of abortion ( < 0.05; OR = 8.37 (95% CI: 1.73–40.42)), herd size ( < 0.05; OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.17–4.61)), and access of rodents to the farm ( < 0.05; OR = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.03–0.86)) were significantly associated with the occurrence of L. hardjo infection. However, breed, parity, and introduction of new animals to the farm were insignificantly associated ( > 0.05). Management system of the animal, hygienic status of the farm, herd size, age of animals, previous history of abortion, and access of rodents to the farm were identified as potential risk factors of L. hardjo disease occurrence. Thus, limiting rodents contact with cattle and their feed and water as well as good sanitary practices and husbandry management should be undertaken.
Identification and Prevalence of Ixodid Ticks of Cattle in case of Haramaya Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to April 2018 to determine the prevalence and identify major species of ixodid ticks of cattle and tick burden of different sex, age, breed, and body condition of cattle. Standard physical and direct stereomicroscopy techniques were employed for identification of tick species. During the study period, a total of 353 cattle were examined for presence of ticks and around 447 ticks were collected. The study showed that 34.3% cattle were infested with one or more tick species. The study reported different species of ticks in the order of their prevalence: A. variegatum (46.3%), Rh. decoloratus (20.1%), A. cohaerens (15.7%), A. gemma (11.9%), and Rh. pulchellus (6.04%), respectively. The prevalence of tick infestation between different risk factors such as sex, age, and body condition of cattle was statistically significant (). The overall male-to-female ratio of ticks was 2.29 : 1. Also, it was reported that, in A. variegatum, A. cohaerens, and A. gemma, the number of male exceeded that of female, but female number exceeded male number in case of Rh. decoloratus. The result also reported difference in attachment site preference, for example, Amblyomma genus was attached mostly to the scrotum/udder and axial and Rh. pulchellus was specified on the ear and perianal area, while Rh. decoloratus was non site selective. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that ticks were the most important problems of cattle of the study areas. Therefore, the increasing threat of ticks warrants urgent strategic control including application of acaricides and creation of awareness among livestock owners about the veterinary importance of ticks for the integrated tick control.
Occurrence of Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from the Beef Carcass of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia
E. coli O157:H7 is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate E. coli O157:H7, determine virulence genes carried by the organism, and assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from beef carcass samples at Bahir Dar city. Swab samples (n = 280) were collected from the carcass of cattle slaughtered at the abattoir and processed using sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime telluride and confirmed with latex agglutination test. A polymerase chain reaction was performed on isolates for the detection of virulence genes stx1, stx2, hlyA, and eae. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. Of 280 samples processed, 25 (8.9%) isolates were positive. Out of 25 isolates subjected for molecular detection, 8 (32%) and 14 (56%) isolates possessed stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively; from those, 5 (20%) isolates had both genes for the production of Shiga toxins. Compared from other virulent genes relatively higher proportion of 18 (72%) isolates carried the hlyA gene. Only 5 (2%) isolates were positive for eae. Resistance was detected in all 25 (100%) isolates and 3 (12%) against clindamycin and trimethoprim, respectively. This study result highlights the potential threat to public health. The abattoir workers need to be aware about the pathogen and should follow appropriate practices to prevent contamination of meat intended for human consumption.
Monitoring of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from Poultry Farms from 2014 to 2018
The current situation of antibiotic resistance of most bacterial pathogens was a threat to the poultry and public health with increasing economic losses. Regarding this problem, monitoring of the circulating microorganisms occurred with the antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 657 different samples from internal organs (liver, heart, lung, and yolk) and paper-lining chick boxes were collected from native chicken farms which were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production in the period from 2014 to 2018 for the detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus. The bacterial isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion technique. Salmonella was isolated from 128 out of 657 (19.5%), E. coli was isolated from 496 out of 657 (75.5%), and Staphylococcus species was isolated from 497 out of 657 (75.6%). All Salmonella positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 10 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was against penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. All E. coli positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was with ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, streptomycin, and danofloxacin. All Staphylococcus positive sample species were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage of resistance all over the five years was shown with tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid.
Canine Leishmaniasis in Morocco: A Descriptive Prospective Clinical Study
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic vector-borne disease that is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin including Morocco. Dogs play a major epidemiological role in this zoonosis as reservoir hosts. This study investigated the clinical manifestations of CanL in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. A total of 96 dogs presented to the Small Animal Clinic of the Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Institute (IAV Hassan II) of Rabat, Morocco, and were tested by RT-PCR and/or serology. Among them, 32 (33.3%) were positive to Leishmania infantum infection. The majority of the positive dogs (93.7%) came from urban areas. Most of them were male (62.5%) and purebreds (65.6%), were aged between 3 and 7 years (71.8%), and had outside activities (guarding, hunting, livestock guarding, and service activities) (71.8%) and all of them were living exclusively outdoor or had free access to the outdoor environment. Lymphadenomegaly (81.2%), dermatological disorders (65.6%) (mostly exfoliative dermatitis), weight loss (59.3%), exercise intolerance (56.2%), anorexia (28.1%), hyporexia (15.6%), and ocular lesions (28.1%) were the most frequent clinical signs and complaints recorded. Anemia and hyperproteinemia due to hyperglobulinemia were observed in 68.7% and 72.7% of the cases, respectively. These results suggest that CanL leads to various nonspecific clinical signs as described previously, making the diagnosis challenging. Since CanL is endemic in Morocco, it should be recommended to systematically test dogs displaying clinical signs compatible with this disease and to regularly screen asymptomatic at-risk dogs. It is also crucial to educate dog owners about the zoonotic aspect of the disease and to encourage intersectorial collaboration following the “One Health” concept, in order to contribute to a more effective control/prevention of human and canine leishmaniasis.