Assessment of Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Urban and Periurban Dairy Production System of EthiopiaRead the full article
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Clinico-Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ruminant’s Cutaneous Papillomavirus in Iraq
The papilloma viruses are constituted of double-stranded DNA and are a more common lesion in ruminant’s skin in Iraq. The p53 tumor suppressor protein reveals an essential role in cell cycle control. This study intends to investigate the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of cutaneous papilloma in ruminants in Iraq. Samples had been collected from a total of 10 animals (three cattle, three goats, and four sheep) with multiple papillomatosis lesions. The samples were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. Clinically, the lesions appeared as multiple various sizes (0.5–11 cm), cauliflower exophytic masses on different parts of the animal’s body. The histopathological features of the epidermis granular layer revealed perinuclear vacuolation (koilocytosis) accompanied by various degrees of hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and parakeratosis. Strong positive reaction for papillomavirus antigen was seen in both epidermal basal and granular layers in the immunohistochemical investigation (IHC). Moreover, all papilloma lesions revealed an intense positive p53 reaction in cytoplasmic and perinuclear of the basal and parabasal layers. In conclusion, this study described the papillomavirus lesions in bovine, ovine, and caprine animals, which were found in different parts areas of the affected animals. All lesions show similar histopathological features with minor variations. PV antigen and p53 protein expression showed positive results in immunohistochemistry that can be used as diagnostic markers for ruminant’s papilloma.
Effects of Calliandra and Sesbania on Daily Milk Production in Dairy Cows on Commercial Smallholder Farms in Kenya
There is a growing interest in protein supplementation of dairy-cow diets using leguminous shrubs. The study objective was to ascertain the association between diet supplementation with Calliandra calothyrsus and Sesbania sesban and milk production in dairy cattle on commercial smallholder farms. This trial involved 235 cows from 80 smallholder dairy farms in Kenya randomly allocated to 4 intervention groups: (1) receiving Calliandra and Sesbania and nutritional advice; (2) receiving reproductive medicines and advice; (3) receiving both group 1 and 2 interventions; and (4) receiving neither intervention. Farm nutritional practices and management data were collected in a questionnaire, and subsequent physical examinations, mastitis tests, and milk production of cows on the farm were monitored approximately monthly for 16 months. Descriptive and univariable statistical analyses were conducted, and multivariable mixed-model regression was used for identification of factors associated () with daily milk production. The mean milk production was 6.39 liters/cow/day (SD = 3.5). Feeding Calliandra/Sesbania to cows was associated () with an increase in milk produced by at least 1 liter/cow/day with each kg fed. Other variables positively associated with ln daily milk production in the final model included feeding of Napier grass, amount of silage and dairy meal fed, body condition score, and appetite of the cow. Other variables negatively associated with ln daily milk production in the final model included amount of maize germ fed, days in milk, sudden feed changes, pregnancy, and subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, our field trial data suggest that use of Calliandra/Sesbania through agroforestry can improve milk production in commercial smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. Agroforestry land use systems can be adopted as a way for dairy farmers to cope with feed shortages and low crude protein in farm-available feeds for their cows.
Urinary Fractional Clearance of Sodium in 8 Healthy Beagle Dogs Fed Normal, Low, or Ultralow Sodium Diets
The purpose of this study was to investigate in healthy adult dogs if there was a daily fluctuation in the FCNa, the role that dietary sodium intake played on the FCNa, and the role that feeding played on the obtained value for FCNa. Three different diets were used in a group of 8 healthy beagle dogs in a crossover design. The sodium content of the diets was normal (0.26%), low (0.18%), and ultralow (0.06%). Spot urine and blood samples were collected from which the urine and serum sodium and creatinine concentration were determined, and the FCNa was calculated. The median FCNa for the normal, low, and ultralow sodium diets was 0.5, 0.77, and 0.15, respectively. Individual dogs showed a daily variation in FCNa, and samples which were collected shortly after eating showed the greatest variation. This study showed that in a group of healthy beagle dogs without obvious renal disease, the FCNa could exceed 1 and that there was both an individual and daily variation in the FCNa. The greatest variation was seen whilst the dogs were fed the low and ultralow sodium diets and when the samples were collected shortly after eating. This study concluded that an FCNa > 1% may not be indicative of acute tubular dysfunction in young dogs, and use of the FCNa for assessing renal function in clinical cases should take into account the animal’s diet, as well as the time the samples were taken in relation to feeding.
Incidence of Calf Morbidity and Its Predictors in North Shewa, Amhara, Ethiopia
Calf morbidity is an important productivity factor that results in huge economic losses in the success of livestock production in Ethiopia. However, there is no robust information on its rate and its predictors in the mixed crop livestock production system as most studies are targeted to intensive dairy farms. A longitudinal study design was conducted from December 2018 to April 2019 in Siyadeber and Wayu districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 135 apparently healthy calves were enrolled from randomly selected fifty-fifty households in three Kebeles of the district, namely, Gash-amba, Siyadeber, and Wale-deneba. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data about the potential risk factors upon the face-to-face interview made with the owners. Calves were monitored for the incidence of morbidity in a weekly visit basis, and any clinical abnormalities were recorded on registries. The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test followed by Generalized Linear Models for binomial family extensions for risk estimate were run, and a value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In this study, the overall incidence rate of calf morbidity among under six months of age was 388 calves per 100,000 days of follow-up, with a cumulative incidence of 34.1% (95% CI: 26.1–42.7). Calf diarrhea, pneumonia, septicemia, dehydration, and navel ill were the encountered health problems consecutively. Among the potential risk factors, calves from Siyadeber Kebele (RR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13–3.94), calves housed with other livestock (RR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.10–3.80), housed with their dam (RR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.20–3.05), without bedding (RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.20–2.94), and calves whose dam age ranges from 5 to 8 years (RR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.05–3.35) were found to be predictors of calf morbidity. In general, the high calf morbidity rates established in this study together with the alarming predictors of calf morbidity entail attention by the concerning bodies on proper management and improved health care so as to reduce the calf morbidity.
Serum Concentration of Bone Metabolism Biomarkers in Goats during the Transition Period
Objective. During the transition period, the animal experiences a series of nutritional, physiological, and social changes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the periparturient period in goats on the serum concentrations of the bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD). Method. Blood samples were collected from fifteen female goats during the periparturient period 3 wk before expected parturition (T −3), within 12 h of parturition (T 0), and 3 wk after parturition (T +3). Results. Compared to a value of 77.67 ± 47.6 ng/mL at T −3, the serum concentrations of OC measured 51.91 ± 22.09 ng/mL at T 0 and 72.61 ± 35.21 ng/mL at T +3. A comparison of OC values at T −3, T 0, and T +3 did not reveal any significant difference (). Compared to a value of 42.00 ± 19.50 U/L at T −3, the serum concentration of b-ALP measured 32.49 ± 15.41 U/L at T 0 and 34.31 ± 18.89 U/L at T +3. A comparison of b-ALP values at T −3, T 0, and T +3 did not reveal any significant difference (). Compared to a value of 17.86 ± 9.15 nmol/L at T −3, the serum concentration of PYD decreased significantly at T 0 to a value of 7.48 ± 4.50 nmol/L (). At T +3, the PYD serum concentration measured 7.72 ± 2.91 nmol/L, which differed significantly from T −3 values (). Conclusion. The results of this study showed that the bone formation biomarkers (OC and b-ALP) did not change significantly during the periparturient period, while the bone resorption biomarker decreased significantly at parturition compared to 3 wk before and 3 wk after parturition. The significantly increased serum estrogen around parturition may have had a role in the increased bone resorption at this time.
Development and Evaluation of an Immuno-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Quantify the Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) Protein in Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) Vaccine
An effective contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) vaccine is essential for the increased production of healthy goats in a cost-effective manner and the prevention of animal-to-animal transmission for both domestic animals and wildlife. Quality control of this vaccine ensures that a reliable supply of pure, safe, and potent batches is obtained. As part of this control, in vitro quantification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) protein in the final vaccines is required before the CCPP vaccine undergoes batch release and certification. The current method used for quantification is based on the measurement of total protein using the bicinchonic acid (BCA) test. This method quantifies the total amount of protein in the vaccine including contaminant protein from media, which can lead to overestimation of the quantity of Mccp protein, resulting in reduced vaccine immunogenicity. An immuno-capture ELISA (ICE) was developed for specific detection and quantification of the Mccp antigen in the CCPP vaccine. As the ICE detects and measures the amount of antigen between two layers of antibodies, capture and detecting antibodies are required. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that detect the Mccp antigen were produced and characterized. One of these mAbs, Mccp-25, was used to develop the ICE as an unlabelled capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase conjugated detecting antibody. The ICE was standardized and evaluated using an internal reference sample, experimental CCPP vaccines and commercial CCPP vaccines. A comparison between the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ICE showed good correlation between the two assays. Also, an in vitro ICE method correlated well with an in vivo sero-conversion in goats that were vaccinated with selected test vaccines. The sensitivity of the ICE was estimated at 30 ng/ml.