Article of the Year 2020
Clinical and Diagnostic Significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Its Isoenzymes in AnimalsRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Anthelmintic Potential of Medicinal Plants against Ancylostoma caninum
Ancylostoma caninum is one of the most important hookworms in dogs. A study revealed that the prevalence of ancylostomiasis in Indonesia is relatively high. However, cases of persistent ancylostomiasis in dogs were reported, indicating the possibility of anthelmintic resistance. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anthelmintic potential of plants preclinically against A. caninum based on related research articles. This review retrieved 14 articles from 2001 to 2021 investigating 19 different plants. Momordica charantia, Diospyros anisandra, and Citrus aurantiifolia hold a promising prospect as anthelmintic against A. caninum. This review found aspects of those medicinal plants that need to be investigated deeper to improve our understanding of the matter. In vitro results in this review have not yet been tested in in vivo trials, which are essential in determining the efficacy and safety of the use of these medicinal plants and also to justify its clinical application.
Brucellosis in Camels and Humans: Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Amibara District of Afar Region, Ethiopia
Brucellosis is an important neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Brucella affecting different mammalian species including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels and humans and its associated risk factors in Amibara District of Afar Region in Northeast Ethiopia, from October 2019 to May 2020. A total of 250 camel and 120 human sera were serially tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of camel brucellosis in this study was 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9–11.56) by RBPT and 3.2% (95% CI: 1.63–6.2) by combined RBPT and CFT. In humans, twelve (10%) of the collected sera were positive by RBPT among which only four of them (3.33%) were positive by CFT. The risk factor analysis indicated that age, body condition, number of parity, and abortion history were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in camel ( ≤ 0.05). In humans, occupation and nonprotective handling of dystocia cases showed an apparent association with Brucella seropositivity. The results of this study indicated that brucellosis is a common health problem in camels and humans in Amibara District of Afar Region. The public health importance of this disease is associated with raw milk consumption and close contact with the animals having history of recent abortion. Therefore, controlling the risk factors, establishing Brucella diagnostic service in human clinics and hospitals, continuous social training with feedback assessments, and overall implementing of One Health approach framework to attain optimal health for people and domestic animals in area are recommended to safeguard the health of society.
Quality of Cattle Meat and Its Compositional Constituents
Meat is the most valuable livestock product since it is one of the main sources of protein for human consumption. Meat quality can be evaluated according to the following parameters: pH, amount of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, bounded water, solubility of proteins, color, and tenderness. The meat composition and physical properties of muscles have been characterized for ensuring improved eating quality. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to review the major chemical compositional and physicochemical properties of meat and, at the same time, its quality attributes and factors that affect quality of meat. A number of structural features of meat as connective tissue, muscle fibers, and tendon that attaches the muscle to the bone are visible in joint meat examined through naked eyes. Water is quantitatively the most important component of meat comprising up to 75% of weight. Meat is also composed of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other important ingredients. Quality factors perceived by consumers are related to sensory attributes (e.g., color, tenderness, and flavor), nutritional properties (e.g., calories, vitamins’ content, and fatty acids’ profile), and appearance (e.g., exudation, marbling, and visible amount of fat). However, fresh meat quality can be defined instrumentally including composition, nutrients, color, water-holding capacity, tenderness, functionality, flavors, spoilage, and contamination. Visual inspection based on sensory quality attributes and different chemical methods are used to analyze meat quality. Other methods such as computer vision and imaging spectroscopy, gas chromatographic analysis, near-infrared technology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computerized tomography scanning are also used in the meat industry. So, the aim of the present review is to review quality characteristics of cattle meat and its composition constituents.
A 150 kDa Protein Derived from Bull Seminal Plasma Extended the Survival Time of Kacang Goat Sperm Stored at 5°C
Artificial insemination has proven to be an effective method for increasing population size and genetic quality of Kacang goats. However, innovation is required to maintain the quality of Kacang goat semen in storage. This study aimed to examine the effects of supplementing the 150 kDa protein assumed as IGF-I complex derived from bull seminal plasma in skim milk-egg yolk extender on the quality of Kacang goat sperm stored at 5°C. Twelve ejaculates collected from three Kacang goats were divided into three groups. In the control group (T0), the ejaculates were extended with skim milk-egg yolk only. In the treatment groups (T1 and T2), the ejaculates were extended with skim milk-egg yolk supplemented with the IGF-I complex protein at 12 μg and 24 μg/100 mL, respectively. The extended semen was stored at 5°C, and the viability, motility, intactness of the plasma membrane, malondialdehyde concentration, and apoptotic sperm percentage were evaluated daily for five days. The results showed that the T1 was the most effective treatment for maintaining Kacang goat semen at a quality acceptable for artificial insemination over five days of storage at 5°C. However, the T0 and T2 groups retained acceptable qualities for only three days at 5°C. It could be concluded that supplementation of 12 μg of the 150 kDa protein derived from bull seminal plasma per 100 mL extender successfully extended the life span of Kacang goat sperm for five days.
Prevalence of Calf Mortality in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Calf mortality has been a major cause of economic losses in the dairy industry in Ethiopia. The condition results in a significant drop in the number of replacing heifers and bulls for sustainable dairy business. Reports on calf mortality with a wide range of prevalence are rising in the country; however, a pooled prevalence of this condition has not been established. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively estimate the pooled prevalence of calf mortality in Ethiopia. Methods. Meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled prevalence of calf mortality in Ethiopia. A comprehensive literature search was carried out on PubMed, African Journals Online, CAB, Web of Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Eligible studies were selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Moderators such as the study area, breed of calf, study design, agroecology, and year of study article published were used as a milestone of data extraction. The random-effect model was used to estimate pooled prevalence. Publication bias and the variation in prevalence estimates attributed to heterogeneity were also assessed. Results. Twenty-five original research papers on the prevalence of calf mortality in various parts of Ethiopia were included. The reported prevalence of calf mortality was between 0.9% and 37%. The pooled prevalence of calf mortality in the country was 14.79%, and the pooled calf mortality estimate across studies for the entire period regarding 1991 to 2000, 2001 to 2010, 2011 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020 was 26.54%, 17.03%, 14.21%, and 11.23%, respectively. Analysis of study subgroups and location revealed significant variations in prevalence. High heterogeneity was observed in the pooled estimates and even after the subgroup meta-analysis. The funnel plots and Egger’s regression asymmetry coefficient (b = −1.0434) (95% CI = −1.49, −0.59; value of 0.012) did suggest the presence of publication bias. There was also an indication of missing studies that could be incorporated by Duval and Tweedie’s trim and fill method where they might fall on a funnel plot and visualize them in an attempt to increase the plot’s symmetry. Analyses also suggest that calf breed, sample size, and study location are likely to be moderators of calf mortality prevalence in Ethiopia. Conclusion. This finding shows that calf mortality is widespread and could result in considerable economic losses for the dairy industry in Ethiopia. Inevitably, a significant reduction in calf mortality prevalence has been observed in recent years since 2010, but the reduction has not yet reached an economically tolerable level. Calf breed susceptibility contributed to the high prevalence. Therefore, interventions for increasing calf health and performance should be focused on minimizing calf mortality on farm and animal levels.
Prevalence and Genetic Relationship of Predominant Escherichia coli Serotypes Isolated from Poultry, Wild Animals, and Environment in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the main causative agent of avian colibacillosis, which is an important systemic disease of profound economic and clinical consequences for the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 975 E. coli strains were isolated from 2,169 samples collected from cloacal swabs of chickens, in-farm wild animals (ants, geckos, flies, and rats), and environment. The highest proportion of E. coli isolation was obtained from chicken cloacal swabs with 71.05% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.69–75.05%) followed by the proportions of 38.15% (95% CI 35.41–40.97%) and 38.11% (95% CI 34.15–42.24%) from wild animals or environment, respectively. Distribution of O-antigen serotypes of the E. coli isolates, including O1, O2, O18, and O78, was determined by PCR. The most predominant serotype was O18 (10.56%) followed by O2 (9.44%), O1 (7.79%), and O78 (6.56%). Of note, serotype O18 was more likely distributed in the examined wild animals, especially in geckos. Polymorphic DNA fingerprints, generated by ERIC-PCR, of representative E. coli strains of each serotype revealed genetic heterogeneity of the examined E. coli, and O18 was more divergent with 63 clusters formed from 66 isolates. Furthermore, several E. coli strains from different sample sources shared high DNA fingerprint relatedness, suggesting that there exists complex transmission of E. coli from chickens to wild animals and environment and vice versa in poultry husbandry settings. Although pathotypes of the examined E. coli were not determined in this study, our results provided important findings of epidemiological and genetic characteristics of E. coli in the Mekong Delta and highlighted the prerequisite of stricter biocontainment to reduce the prevalence and consequences of APEC in poultry production.