Review on Epidemiology and Public Health Importance of Goat Tuberculosis in EthiopiaRead the full article
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Evaluation of Commercial Disinfectants against Staphylococcus lentus and Micrococcus spp. of Poultry Origin
Introduction. Effective sanitation strategies for poultry farms require an appropriate selection of the disinfectant based on the contaminants present and their sensitivity to the disinfectants. Aim. The current study investigated the prevalence of streptococci/micrococci in poultry farms of Bangladesh and the efficacy of commercial disinfectants (Savlon, Lysol, Quatovet, Virkon S, and Virocid) along with alcohol against these pathogens to adopt appropriate strategies. Materials and Methods. Conventional approaches and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to confirm the isolates at the species level along with microtiter biofilm assay to determine their biofilm-forming ability. Efficacy of the disinfectants was tested against those isolates using agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by broth dilution method using different dilutions of the disinfectants. Results. Staphylococcus lentus (n = 32), Micrococcus luteus (n = 7), and Micrococcus aloeverae (n = 4) were confirmed among 102 presumptively screened streptococci/micrococci isolates from 43 samples. No single disinfectant showed equally high efficacy against all three bacterial species in agar well diffusion test, although Virocid showed the lowest MIC against all three of them. Lysol was least effective among the commercial disinfectants by both MIC and diffusion method, although each commercial disinfectant was more effective than alcohol. Considering both the average diameter of the inhibition zones and the MIC values, efficacy can be interpreted as Virocid > Quatovet > Savlon > Virkon S > Lysol. Although the efficacy decreased with decreasing concentration, the disinfectants retained a satisfactory level of efficacy at 50% concentration. Among test pathogens, M. aloeverae was the most sensitive to the disinfectants and the weakest biofilm producers, whereas 4/14 S. lentus and 1/5 M. luteus were strong biofilm producers, which may cause more reduction in the efficacy in environmental conditions. Conclusion. As no ideal disinfectant was found in the study, the efficacy of the disinfectants should be routinely evaluated and validated to ensure the sanitation standards in the poultry sector.
Prevalence of Cattle Trypanosomosis and Apparent Density of Its Fly Vectors in Bambasi District of Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia
Trypanosomosis is the most serious disease of cattle, which causes great socioeconomic losses in the country. Its socioeconomic impact is reflected on direct losses due to mortality, morbidity, and reduction in milk and meat production, abortion and stillbirth, and also costs associated with combat of the disease are direct losses. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of cattle trypanosomosis, and the apparent density and distribution of its fly vectors in selected study areas. The methods employed during the study were buffy coat technique for parasitological study and deploying trap for the collection of tsetse flies. A total of 1512 flies were trapped, and among them, 1162 were tsetse flies while 350 were biting flies. Higher apparent density for tsetse fly (7.7 F/T/D) followed by Stomoxys (0.9 F/T/D), Tabanus (0.8 F/T/D), and Hematopota (0.6 F/T/D) was recorded. Out of 638 examined cattle, the overall prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study area was 9.1% (58/638). Out of positive cases, Trypanosoma congolense (7.7%) was the dominant trypanosome species followed by Trypanosoma vivax (0.9%), Trypanosoma brucei (0.2%), and mixed infection of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax (0.3%). There was no a significant difference () in trypanosome infection between age, sex, and trypanosome species. The prevalence of trypanosomosis on the bases of body condition was 2.8% for poor, 5.5% for medium, and 0.8% for good body condition. The overall prevalence of anemia was (36.8%), and presence of anemia was higher in trypanosome positive animals (62.5%) than in negative animals (34.3%) which is statistically significant (, CI = 1.794–5.471). The overall mean packed cell volume (PCV) value for examined animals was 25.84 ± 0.252SE. Mean (PCV) of parasitaemic cattle (9.1%) was significantly () lower than that of aparasitaemic cattle (90%). This survey showed that trypanosomosis is still a core problem for livestock production of the study area. Therefore, more attention should be given to the control of both the disease and its vectors.
Pharmacokinetics of Transdermal Flunixin Meglumine Following a Single Dose in Marine Toads (Rhinella marina)
Transdermal administration is an important method of pharmacologic drug therapy in amphibians, made possible by their unique skin physiology and permeability. Despite this, there are relatively few studies that investigate transdermal pharmacokinetics in amphibians. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine applied topically to marine toads (Rhinella marina). Twenty-one adult marine toads were administered flunixin meglumine (3.3 mg/kg) topically on their dorsum and randomized (n = 7/group) to blood collection at two timepoints from the following: 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours (h), using a sparse sampling protocol. Plasma was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed individually and reported as a mean of the samples at each timepoint. The mean peak plasma concentration was 6.31 µg/ml, area under the curve was 29.37 μg-h/mL, and elimination half-life was 2.79 h. No adverse effects were noted in any animals. A subset of 12 animals were euthanized at serial timepoints and necropsied. Histopathology of skin and major organs revealed one minimal superficial lesion in a single toad potentially attributable to flunixin meglumine administration; otherwise, no other treatment-related lesions were observed in 11 of 12 toads. A single topical dose of transdermal flunixin meglumine was rapidly absorbed in marine toads in the current study, and peak plasma concentrations exceeded therapeutic ranges established in cattle with no significant pathologic findings.
Porcine Cysticercosis Control in Western Kenya: The Interlink of Management Practices in Pig Farms and Meat Inspection Practice at Slaughter Slabs
This study assessed the management practices for controlling porcine cysticercosis (PC) on pig farms and in pork at the slaughter slabs in two counties (Busia and Kakamega) of Western Kenya. A total of 162 pig-rearing households at the farm level, 26 butcher owners, and 26 slaughter slab workers at the slaughter slab level were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the “Statistical Analysis System” (SAS) programme. Results indicated that the frequent management practices used at the farm level () were rearing pigs under free range (69.1%), latrine ownership by households (87.7%), and use of pit latrines (72.8%) in households. At the slaughter level (), results of the butcher owners (76.9%) and slaughter slab workers (62.5%) revealed that meat inspection was not practiced adequately in the two areas of study. The results imply that slaughtered pigs for human consumption were not adequately inspected, and thus, the study recommends for implementation of effective pig management practices at the farm level and pork meat inspection at slaughter slabs to prevent PC infections and assure food safety along the pork value chain.
Comparison of Tick Control and Antibiotic Use Practices at Farm Level in Regions of High and Low Acaricide Resistance in Uganda
Uganda has experienced tick acaricide resistance in the livestock sector. With increase in incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs), use of antibiotics for control of TBDs and other opportunistic diseases has raisedserious concerns. The purpose of this study was to compare the farmers’ tick control and antibiotic use practices on farms in regions of low (LARA) and high (HARA) tick acaricide resistance in Uganda, determine the prevalence of antibiotic residues in milk from both regions, and identify factors associated with antibiotic residues in milk. One representative district was selected from each region from which 10 farms were randomly selected. Delvotest SP-NT® test kit was used to detect antibiotic residues in milk. Half-body tick counts and acaricide efficacy tests were performed. Majority (70%) of HARA’s respondents reported a corresponding increase in a monthly incidence of TBDs with an average of 3.2 cases of TBDs treated per farm compared to 0.2 cases in LARA. East Coast fever (ECF) was identified as the most common TBD in both regions, though cases of coinfection were more common in HARA. Half of HARA’s respondents reported a corresponding increase in the use of antibiotics on their farms due to tick resistance compared to LARA. Antibiotics were the most used drugs on farms in both regions with oxytetracycline being the commonly used antibiotic. Ticks from HARA were resistant to deltamethrin, amitraz, and coformulation (chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin) while resistance against deltamethrin was confirmed in LARA. HARA farms had a significantly higher prevalence of antibiotic residues (21.25%) in raw milk than in LARA (4%) farms (p < 0.05). Acaricide resistance and practice of reading drug use instructions were significantly associated with antibiotic residues in milk at farm level. Overall, the study provides vital information linking acaricide resistance to antibiotic use practices, consequently leading to antibiotic residues in milk.
Comparison of Dilution on Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and Marine Toad (Rhinella marinus) Blood Parameters as Measured on a Portable Chemistry Analyzer
Biochemical testing is an important clinical tool in evaluating the physiology of reptiles and amphibians. Suitable point of care analyzers can allow for rapid delivery of results, but small patient size can inhibit sufficient sample collection. This study evaluated the utility of sample dilution with sterile distilled water as a means of biochemical evaluation when sample volume is limited. Blood was collected from 12 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) and 12 marine toads (Rhinella marinus) and analyzed via i-STAT CHEM8+ cartridges. Two undiluted samples and two samples diluted 1 : 1 with sterile water were evaluated immediately following collection for each animal in the study. Analytes reported in the diluted samples were limited to glucose, ionized calcium, and total carbon dioxide. The expected dilution ratio value of diluted to undiluted samples was 0.5, of which glucose in both turtles and toads was nearest. Dilution ratio values for ionized calcium, however, were higher than expected in both turtles and toads. Sample dilution is not recommended for most analytes included on the CHEM8+ cartridge due to values occurring outside the limits of detection for the analyzer. Glucose and ionized calcium values obtained on diluted samples should be interpreted with caution but may provide clinical utility in reptile and amphibian patients where sample volume is limited.