Article of the Year 2020
Clinical and Diagnostic Significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Its Isoenzymes in AnimalsRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
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Seroprevalence of Seven Reproductive Diseases in Beef and Dairy Cows from Three Provinces in Indonesia
Bovine reproductive diseases are endemic in Indonesia, but comprehensive information about their infectious causes is not available. Therefore, our aim for this study was to detect several infectious agents that cause reproductive diseases in Indonesian beef and dairy cows. A total of 152 cow serum samples collected by Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Brawijaya University and Veterinary Disease Investigation Centre as a part of the mandatory and regularly surveillance system from three provinces during 2019–2020 were used. The samples were then sent to Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science (IRCVS) for further detection of seven reproductive diseases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seven reproductive diseases to be tested in parallel are neosporosis, chlamydiosis, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), and BHV-4 infection. The dominant reproductive diseases in Indonesian cows were BVD (45.69%), chlamydiosis (31.58%), IBR (20.53%), neosporosis (11.84%), and BHV-4 infection (10.53%). The seroprevalence of IBR, BHV-4 infection, neosporosis, and brucellosis varied significantly between dairy and beef cattle. The most dominant reproductive diseases in aborted cows were chlamydiosis (45%), BVD (41%), and neosporosis (10%). The conclusion drawn from this study is that the dominant reproductive diseases in Indonesian cows are BVD, chlamydiosis, IBR, neosporosis, and BHV-4 infection. Chlamydiosis, BVD, and neosporosis are common among aborted cow. Chlamydiosis, neosporosis, and BHV-4 infection should be included in the national priority list in Indonesia. Control and preventive measures should be focused on high-risk areas and animals like stray cat and dog.
Changes in the Serum Protein Fractions in Goats after Treatment of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections
Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in small ruminants belong to major health problems. The regulation of gastrointestinal infections in goats and the responses developed against them appear to be different from those observed in sheep. In the literature, there is a lack of data on the effect of gastrointestinal parasitic infections on the serum protein profile in goats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins in goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal parasites and to compare the changes in the total serum proteins and serum protein fractions (albumin and α1-, α2-, β-, and γ-globulins) obtained after antihelminthic treatment. Eight adult female goats of the white shorthaired breed from a small dairy goat farm at the age ranging between 3 and 5 years with average body weight 35.4 ± 3.2 kg and body condition score (BCS) from 1.5 to 2.5 were used in the study. The serum proteins in goats were separated into five fractions: albumin, α1- and α2-globulins, and β- and γ-globulins. Significant changes after treatment were found in the relative concentrations of albumin () and α2- (), β- (), and γ-globulins (), as well as albumin/globulin ratio (). The mean concentration of total serum proteins was, after the antiparasitic treatment, significantly higher. Among the globulin fractions, the γ-globulin fraction contributed most significantly to these changes (). The results presented in the study suggest a significant effect of antiparasitic treatment in goats on the synthesis of blood serum proteins and on the changes of the proportion of serum protein fractions.
Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Associated Risk Factor in Hawa Galan District, Kelem Wollega Zone of Ethiopia
An analytical cross-sectional study was performed between November 2015 and April 2016 at Hawa Galan woreda, Kelem Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia, to estimate the proportion of cattle with trypanosomosis and to evaluate the elements associated with the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. A haemoparasitological examination of the Buffy coat method was implemented to determine the proportion of trypanosomosis-positive cattle. A study population of 428 bovines was randomly selected from three peasant associations (PAs) and tested for the presence of the disease. Findings of the laboratory results indicate that among all animals tested at the study time, 26 (6%) animals were positive for the disease. Among the positive results, the proportion of trypanosome species was Trypanosoma congolense 18 (69.3%) and Trypanosoma vivax 8 (30.7%). The prevalence at the selected PAs was 12.5%, 3.8%, and 3% for Lemlem, Madawalkituma, and Ifajiru, respectively. From this finding, the relationship has a statistically significant variation ( < 0.05) among peasant associations and body condition state, and the proportion was significantly greater ( < 0.05) in animals categorized under poor body condition score. The relationships between age and sex of cattle show no statistically significant variation among them ( > 0.05). This study indicates that the proportion of trypanosomosis was greater in anemic (PCV<24%) cattle than nonanemic (PCV≥24%). Therefore, based on this finding, the proportion of bovine trypanosomosis is evident that can cause a major effect on the health of cattle in the study population in the study area. So, effective control methods could be applied to decrease the disease and its related economic loss.
Anthelmintic Potential of Medicinal Plants against Ancylostoma caninum
Ancylostoma caninum is one of the most important hookworms in dogs. A study revealed that the prevalence of ancylostomiasis in Indonesia is relatively high. However, cases of persistent ancylostomiasis in dogs were reported, indicating the possibility of anthelmintic resistance. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anthelmintic potential of plants preclinically against A. caninum based on related research articles. This review retrieved 14 articles from 2001 to 2021 investigating 19 different plants. Momordica charantia, Diospyros anisandra, and Citrus aurantiifolia hold a promising prospect as anthelmintic against A. caninum. This review found aspects of those medicinal plants that need to be investigated deeper to improve our understanding of the matter. In vitro results in this review have not yet been tested in in vivo trials, which are essential in determining the efficacy and safety of the use of these medicinal plants and also to justify its clinical application.
Brucellosis in Camels and Humans: Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Amibara District of Afar Region, Ethiopia
Brucellosis is an important neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Brucella affecting different mammalian species including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels and humans and its associated risk factors in Amibara District of Afar Region in Northeast Ethiopia, from October 2019 to May 2020. A total of 250 camel and 120 human sera were serially tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of camel brucellosis in this study was 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9–11.56) by RBPT and 3.2% (95% CI: 1.63–6.2) by combined RBPT and CFT. In humans, twelve (10%) of the collected sera were positive by RBPT among which only four of them (3.33%) were positive by CFT. The risk factor analysis indicated that age, body condition, number of parity, and abortion history were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in camel ( ≤ 0.05). In humans, occupation and nonprotective handling of dystocia cases showed an apparent association with Brucella seropositivity. The results of this study indicated that brucellosis is a common health problem in camels and humans in Amibara District of Afar Region. The public health importance of this disease is associated with raw milk consumption and close contact with the animals having history of recent abortion. Therefore, controlling the risk factors, establishing Brucella diagnostic service in human clinics and hospitals, continuous social training with feedback assessments, and overall implementing of One Health approach framework to attain optimal health for people and domestic animals in area are recommended to safeguard the health of society.
Quality of Cattle Meat and Its Compositional Constituents
Meat is the most valuable livestock product since it is one of the main sources of protein for human consumption. Meat quality can be evaluated according to the following parameters: pH, amount of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, bounded water, solubility of proteins, color, and tenderness. The meat composition and physical properties of muscles have been characterized for ensuring improved eating quality. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to review the major chemical compositional and physicochemical properties of meat and, at the same time, its quality attributes and factors that affect quality of meat. A number of structural features of meat as connective tissue, muscle fibers, and tendon that attaches the muscle to the bone are visible in joint meat examined through naked eyes. Water is quantitatively the most important component of meat comprising up to 75% of weight. Meat is also composed of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other important ingredients. Quality factors perceived by consumers are related to sensory attributes (e.g., color, tenderness, and flavor), nutritional properties (e.g., calories, vitamins’ content, and fatty acids’ profile), and appearance (e.g., exudation, marbling, and visible amount of fat). However, fresh meat quality can be defined instrumentally including composition, nutrients, color, water-holding capacity, tenderness, functionality, flavors, spoilage, and contamination. Visual inspection based on sensory quality attributes and different chemical methods are used to analyze meat quality. Other methods such as computer vision and imaging spectroscopy, gas chromatographic analysis, near-infrared technology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computerized tomography scanning are also used in the meat industry. So, the aim of the present review is to review quality characteristics of cattle meat and its composition constituents.