Incidence of Calf Morbidity and Its Predictors in North Shewa, Amhara, EthiopiaRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
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Serum Concentration of Bone Metabolism Biomarkers in Goats during the Transition Period
Objective. During the transition period, the animal experiences a series of nutritional, physiological, and social changes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the periparturient period in goats on the serum concentrations of the bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD). Method. Blood samples were collected from fifteen female goats during the periparturient period 3 wk before expected parturition (T −3), within 12 h of parturition (T 0), and 3 wk after parturition (T +3). Results. Compared to a value of 77.67 ± 47.6 ng/mL at T −3, the serum concentrations of OC measured 51.91 ± 22.09 ng/mL at T 0 and 72.61 ± 35.21 ng/mL at T +3. A comparison of OC values at T −3, T 0, and T +3 did not reveal any significant difference (). Compared to a value of 42.00 ± 19.50 U/L at T −3, the serum concentration of b-ALP measured 32.49 ± 15.41 U/L at T 0 and 34.31 ± 18.89 U/L at T +3. A comparison of b-ALP values at T −3, T 0, and T +3 did not reveal any significant difference (). Compared to a value of 17.86 ± 9.15 nmol/L at T −3, the serum concentration of PYD decreased significantly at T 0 to a value of 7.48 ± 4.50 nmol/L (). At T +3, the PYD serum concentration measured 7.72 ± 2.91 nmol/L, which differed significantly from T −3 values (). Conclusion. The results of this study showed that the bone formation biomarkers (OC and b-ALP) did not change significantly during the periparturient period, while the bone resorption biomarker decreased significantly at parturition compared to 3 wk before and 3 wk after parturition. The significantly increased serum estrogen around parturition may have had a role in the increased bone resorption at this time.
Development and Evaluation of an Immuno-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Quantify the Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) Protein in Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) Vaccine
An effective contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) vaccine is essential for the increased production of healthy goats in a cost-effective manner and the prevention of animal-to-animal transmission for both domestic animals and wildlife. Quality control of this vaccine ensures that a reliable supply of pure, safe, and potent batches is obtained. As part of this control, in vitro quantification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) protein in the final vaccines is required before the CCPP vaccine undergoes batch release and certification. The current method used for quantification is based on the measurement of total protein using the bicinchonic acid (BCA) test. This method quantifies the total amount of protein in the vaccine including contaminant protein from media, which can lead to overestimation of the quantity of Mccp protein, resulting in reduced vaccine immunogenicity. An immuno-capture ELISA (ICE) was developed for specific detection and quantification of the Mccp antigen in the CCPP vaccine. As the ICE detects and measures the amount of antigen between two layers of antibodies, capture and detecting antibodies are required. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that detect the Mccp antigen were produced and characterized. One of these mAbs, Mccp-25, was used to develop the ICE as an unlabelled capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase conjugated detecting antibody. The ICE was standardized and evaluated using an internal reference sample, experimental CCPP vaccines and commercial CCPP vaccines. A comparison between the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ICE showed good correlation between the two assays. Also, an in vitro ICE method correlated well with an in vivo sero-conversion in goats that were vaccinated with selected test vaccines. The sensitivity of the ICE was estimated at 30 ng/ml.
Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality of Cryopreserved Bull Semen Used in Artificial Insemination of Cows in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia
The objectives of this trial were to estimate prevalence of bacteriospermia, to determine the bacterial load, and to isolate the types of bacteria as well as to assess the association between bacterial load and sperm quality traits in cryopreserved bull semen in field conditions in the South Wollo Zone. A total of 309 cryopreserved straws of semen from the Holstein Friesian (HF)-cross bull (n = 180 straws) and pure Jersey bull (n = 129 straws) were investigated. Bacteriological assessments of the presence of aerobic bacteria, estimation of bacterial count and bacterial isolation, as well as semen quality were performed. Aerobic bacterial contamination was prevalent in 38.8% of the semen straws. No significant difference in the prevalence of bacteriospermia was observed among bulls although the HF-cross bull had a higher prevalence (40.0%). But, significant difference in prevalence of bacteriospermia was found among semen ejaculates of the same bull. The risk of bacteriospermia in the HF-cross bull was higher (Odds ratio = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.168–20.26) compared to Jersey although not significant. Overall average bacterial load of 50.38 ± 16.29 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml (from nil to 1318.20 CFU/ml) was found. No significant difference in bacterial count among bulls and their ejaculates was observed. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that the proportions of motility, live, and normal morphology were negatively influenced by an increase in the bacterial contamination of semen. In this study, three isolates of coagualse-negative Staphylococcus species and one isolate of Corynebacterium species were found. Average percentages of sperm motility (48.35 ± 1.23), live (66.08 ± 1.0), and normal morphology (80.62 ± 1.24) were observed. It was concluded that cryopreservation does not guarantee the quality of semen from bacterial contamination. Hence, meticulous care should be adopted to prevent contamination of semen by bacteria during collection, transportation, processing, and storage times.
Digestible Energy Intake and Digestive Efficiency of Human-Managed North American River Otters (Lontra canadensis)
Diets currently provided to captive North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are highly variable with different institutions providing various whole foods, commercial complete prepared diets, or combinations of both. This study investigated the digestible energy intake, gastrointestinal transit time, and digestive efficiency of three different diets being fed at three North Carolina institutions. Otters housed at Institution A (n = 3) were fed strictly fish. Otters housed at Institutions B (n = 3) and C (n = 2) were fed a majority fish based diet (58.5 and 74.1%, respectively), supplemented with fruits, vegetables, and supplemental protein sources as enrichment. There was an apparent trend between increased percentage of fish in the diet and faster transit time and higher digestive efficiency. As less fish was included in the diets, the GI transit time was longer (Institution A, 106 minutes; Institution B, 145 minutes; Institution C, 208 minutes). Median digestive efficiency was high for all three groups (A, 91.4%; B, 87.8%; C, 89.8%) but was higher for the institutions feeding fish. Additionally, the overall median gross energy intake for the eight animals in this study was 163.1 kcal/kgBM0.75/day (range: 92.2 to 260.7 kcal/kgBM0.75/day). While all three institutions had healthy otter populations, it appears that a higher fish diet should be further studied as the model North American river otter diet.
Avian Bornaviral Ganglioneuritis: Current Debates and Unanswered Questions
Avian bornaviral ganglioneuritis, often referred to as parrot wasting disease, is associated with a newly discovered avian virus from the taxonomic family Bornaviridae. Research regarding the pathogenesis and treatment for this disease is ongoing, with implications for understanding other emerging human and nonhuman diseases, as well as the health and ecology of wildlife. At this time, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the transmission of the disease, best practices for diagnostic sampling and testing, and whether currently used drug therapies are effective or harmful for afflicted birds. The pathogenesis of the disease also remains unclear with many birds showing resistance to the effects of the virus and being able to remain clinically unaffected for years, while other birds succumb to its effects. New research findings regarding avian bornaviral ganglioneuritis are discussed and important as yet unanswered questions are identified.
Effects of Eplerenone on Blood Pressure and Echocardiographic and Serum Biochemical Variables in Five Healthy Dogs: A Pilot Study
Eplerenone (EP), an aldosterone antagonist, is reported to produce renal and cardiac protective effects in noncanine species. However, there are no detailed reports available on cardiovascular effects of EP in dogs. This study aimed to determine effect of EP on echocardiographic parameters, blood pressures, and biochemical variables in healthy dogs. Five healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided and repeatedly used in each of 3 dose groups, receiving 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg BW EP orally q24 h for 4 wks. Serum biochemical test, blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiography measurements were performed before EP administration and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after EP administration. Treatment with EP reduced mean blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and significantly (but in a dose-independent manner) decreased left atrium/aorta ratio, early diastolic transmitral flow, early diastolic transmitral flow/late diastolic transmitral flow, peak velocity of early diastolic transmitral flow/peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion, left ventricle and right ventricle Tei indices, stroke volume, cardiac output, and mid systole myocardial velocity gradient 1 to 4 weeks after administration. Deceleration time of early diastolic transmitral flow significantly increased after EP administration. No significant changes were observed in serum biochemical variables. The results indicated that EP might reduce preload, thereby decreasing left atrial size. In addition, reduction of left ventricular stiffness may have theoretically taken place but this could not be tested using the present study design. It is suggested that EP administration within the dose range used in this study is safe for administration to healthy dogs. Further studies are needed to explore both safety and efficacy, as well as to seek a recommended dose range of EP treatment in client-owned dogs with heart disease.