Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2010, Article ID 818159, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/818159
Case Report

Feeding Behavior-Related Toxicity due to Nandina domestica in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum)

Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 43 Brighton Road, Tifton, GA 31793, USA

Received 12 August 2010; Revised 1 October 2010; Accepted 5 November 2010

Academic Editor: Guillermo Virkel

Copyright © 2010 Moges Woldemeskel and Eloise L. Styer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Klein, “Bombycilla cedrorum,” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web, 2003, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bombycilla_cedrorum.html.
  2. M. C. Witmer, D. J. Mountjoy, and L. Elliot, “Cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum),” in The Birds of North America, No. 309, A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds., 1997, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa, USA and The American Ornitologists’ Union, Washington, DC, USA, http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/309. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. Dunn, “Waxwings are Wild. Wild Creatures must Remain Free,” 2001–2006, http://www.wordwiz72.com/waxwing.html.
  4. J. Kellum, “Another Look at Nandina,” Southern Living, vol. 32, pp. 393–397, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. C. Bent, “Cedar waxwing,” in Life Histories of Familiar North American Birds, P. Query and , Eds., vol. 197, pp. 79–102, Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin. United States Government Printing Office, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Scheper, “Nandina domestica (#212) Floridata,” Floridata.com LC, Tallahassee, Fla, USA, 2008, http://www.floridata.com/ref/n/nand_dom.cfm.
  7. A. P. Knight and R. G. Walter, “Plants causing sudden death,” in A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America, A. P. Knight and R. G. Walter, Eds., Teton NewMedia, Jackson, Wyo, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. C. Witmer, “Annual diet of cedar waxwings based on U.S. biological survey records (1885–1950) compared to diet of American Robins: contrasts in dietary patterns and natural history,” Auk, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 414–430, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. J. Levey and G. E. Duke, “How do frugivores process fruit? Gastrointestinal transit and glucose absorption in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum),” Auk, vol. 109, pp. 722–730, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. E. Burrows and R. J. Tyrl, Berberidaceae Juss. Nandina domestica thumb. Toxic Plants of North America, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2001.
  11. E. Ronald, “Cyanide hazards to fish , wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review,” Biological Repor 85(1.23), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. N. Wiemeyer, E. F. Hill, J. W. Carpenter, and A. J. Krynitsky, “Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds,” Journal of wildlife diseases, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 538–546, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  13. C. J. Henny, R. J. Hallock, and E. E. Hill, “Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 45–58, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. Bhattacharya and S. J. S. Flora, “Cyanide toxicity and its treatment,” in Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, R. C. Gupta, Ed., chapter 19, pp. 255–270, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Friend and J. H. Franson, Eds., Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases; General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds, Information and Technology Report 1999-001, chapter 46, US-Geological Survey, 1999.