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Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2010, Article ID 957570, 9 pages
Research Article

Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 171 Food Safety Building, E. Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2Vector Scientific Resources, Inc., 5780 Braeburn Court, Kalamazoo, MI 49009, USA
31505 Gilcrest Ave., E. Lansing, MI 48823, USA
4Hill's Pet Nutrition Pty Limited, 350 Orchard Road #18-07, Shaw House, Singapore 238868

Received 11 May 2010; Accepted 17 August 2010

Academic Editor: David Polzin

Copyright © 2010 Paul C. Bartlett et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.