Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2011, Article ID 162520, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/162520
Research Article

Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2University of Idaho, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Caine Veterinary Teaching Center, 1020 East Homedale Road, Caldwell, ID 83607, USA
3Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 1400 South 19th Avenue, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA
4Wildlife Conservation Society, 2023 Stadium Drive, Suite 1A, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA
5Department of Animal & Range Sciences, Montana State University, P.O. Box 172900, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
6Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460, USA
7U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1400 S 19th Avenue, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA
8U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, 2327 University Way, Suite 2, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA
9Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, 224 Statistics Building, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
10National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 La Porte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
11Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Western Region, Belgrade, MT 59714, USA

Received 18 July 2011; Accepted 24 August 2011

Academic Editor: Michael Stoskopf

Copyright © 2011 David S. Miller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. K. Buechner, “The bighorn sheep in the United States, its past, present, and future,” Wildlife Monographs, vol. 4, pp. 1–174, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. E. Gross, F. J. Singer, M. E. Moses, and P. R. Krausman, “Effects of disease, dispersal, and area on bighorn sheep restoration,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 25–37, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. E. Toweill and V. Geist, Return of Royalty: Wild Sheep of North America, Boone and Crockett Club and Foundation for North American Wild Sheep, Missoula, Mont, USA, 1999.
  4. W. T. Hornaday, “Notes on the mountain sheep of North America with a description of a new species,” New York Zoological Society Annual Report, vol. 5, pp. 77–122, 1901. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. A. Baillie-Grohman, “Camps on the trail of the bighorn,” in Camps in the Rockies, W. A. Baillie-Grohman, Ed., pp. 154–181, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1902. View at Google Scholar
  6. W. M. Rush, “Notes on disease in wild game,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 163–164, 1927. View at Google Scholar
  7. H. F. Evans, “Bighorn at many glacier,” Glacial Drift, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 2–3, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  8. H. B. Mills, “A preliminary study of the bighorn of Yellowstone National Park,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 18, pp. 205–212, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  9. H Marsh, “Pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 214–219, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. K. Potts, “Hemorrhagic septicemia in the bighorn of Rocky Mountain National Park,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 18, pp. 105–106, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. W. Miller, N. T. Hobbs, and E. S. Williams, “Spontaneous pasteurellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis): clinical, laboratory, and epizootiological observations,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 534–542, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. J. Forrester and C. M. Senger, “A survey of lungworm infection in bighorn sheep of Montana,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 481–491, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  13. W. J. Foreyt and D. A. Jessup, “Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 163–168, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. K. Onderka and W. D. Wishart, “Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 663–667, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Foreyt, “Effects of controlled contact exposure between healthy bighorn sheep and llamas, domestic goats, mountain goats, cattle, domestic sheep, or mouflon sheep,” in Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, pp. 7–14, Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. P. Dassanayake, S. Shanthalingam, C. N. Herndon et al., “Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity in two related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 366–371, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. J. Kraabel and M. W. Miller, “Effect of simulated stress on susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils to Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 558–566, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. K. Lawrence, S. Shanthalingam, R. P. Dassanayake et al., “Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 706–717, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. R. Spraker, C. P. Hibler, G. G. Schoonveld, and W. S. Adney, “Pathologic changes and microorganisms found in bighorn sheep during a stress-related die-off,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 319–327, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Dean, P. Hnilicka, T. J. Kreeger, and T. Delcurto, “An investigation into the selenium requirement for Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” in Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, pp. 95–99, Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. Hnilicka, J. Mioncznski, B. J. Mincher et al., “Bighorn sheep lamb survival, trace minerals, rainfall, and air pollution: are there any connections?” in Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, pp. 69–94, Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Aune, N. Anderson, D. E. Worley, L. Stackhouse, J. Henderson, and J. Daniel, “A comparison of population and health histories among seven Montana bighorn sheep populations,” in Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, pp. 46–69, Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  23. T. E. Besser, E. F. Cassirer, K. A. Potter et al., “Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis),” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 423–430, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. R. Spraker and C. P. Hibler, “Summer lamb mortality of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” in Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, pp. 11–12, Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  25. Unites States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, “Revised guidelines for management of somestic sheep and goats in native wild sheep habitats,” Instruction Memorandum 98-140, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  26. Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks, “Montana Bighorn Sheep Conservation Strategy,” Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, Helena, MT, 2010, http://fwp.mt.gov/wildthings/management/bighorn/plan.html.
  27. M. D. Kock, D. A. Jessup, R. K. Clark, C. E. Franti, and R. A. Weaver, “Capture methods in five subspecies of free-ranging bighorn sheep: an evaluation of drop-net, drive-net, chemical immobilization and the net-gun,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 634–640, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. L. Drew, C. Gillin, and G. C. Weiser, Recommendations for Isolation of Pasteurella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. from Bighorn Sheep, Western Wildlife Health Committee, Association of Western Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 2005.
  29. R. D. Beane and N. T. Hobbs, “The Baermann technique for estimating Protostrongylus infection in bighorn sheep: effect of laboratory procedures,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. L. Hoar, Parasite loads and their relationship to herd health in the Highlands bighorn sheep herd in southwestern Montana, M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont, USA, 1995.
  31. B. V. Beaver, W. Reed, S. Leary et al., “2000 Report of the AVMA panel on euthanasia,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 218, no. 5, pp. 669–696, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. D. Jaworski, A. C. S. Ward, D. L. Hunter, and I. V. Wesley, “Use of DNA analysis of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T isolates to monitor transmission in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis),” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 831–835, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. D. Jaworski, D. L. Hunter, and A. C. S. Ward, “Biovariants of isolates of Pasteurella from domestic and wild ruminants,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. C. Weiser, D. S. Miller, M. L. Drew, J. C. Rhyan, and A. C. S. Ward, “Variation in pasteurella (bibersteinia) and mannheimia SPP. following transport and antibiotic treatment in free-ranging and captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis),” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. M. Atlas, Handbook of Microbiological Media, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1993.
  36. K. M. Rudolph, D. L. Hunter, R. B. Rimler et al., “Microorganisms associated with a pneumonic epizootic in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis),” Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 548–558, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. E. Cottral, Manual of Standardized Methods for Veterinary Microbiology, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, 1978.
  38. F. J. Fenner, E. P. G. Gibbs, F. Murphy, R. Rott, M. J. Studdert, and D. O. White, Veterinary Virology, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 1993.
  39. Center for Veterinary Biologics & National Veterinary Service Laboratories, “Testing Protocol,” Revision BPRRO2105.02, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  40. G. J. Tortora, B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case, Microbiology: An Introduction, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 1992.
  41. I. Dohoo, W. Martin, and H. Stryhn, Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, AVC, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, 2003.
  42. United States Geologic Survey/Bureau of Reclamation Office, “Payette National Forest Science Panel Discussion on risk for disease transmission analysis between bighorn and domestic sheep,” Tech. Rep., United States Geologic Survey/Bureau of Reclamation Office, Boise, Idaho, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  43. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), “Pasteurellosis transmission risks between domestic and wild sheep,” CAST Commentary QTA2008-1, CAST, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  44. M. W. Miller, “Pasteurellosis,” in Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals, E. S. Williams and I. K. Barker, Eds., pp. 330–349, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 3rd edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  45. O. Angen, R. Mutters, D. A. Caugant, J. E. Olsen, and M. Bisgaard, “Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16s rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 67–86, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. J. Watson and R. L. Davies, “Outbreak of Pasteurella multocida septicaemia in neonatal lambs,” Veterinary Record, vol. 151, no. 14, pp. 420–422, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. C. Weiser, W. J. DeLong, J. L. Paz, B. Shafii, W. J. Price, and A. C. S. Ward, “Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with pneumonia in bighorn sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 536–544, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. L. George, D. J. Martin, P. M. Lukacs, and M. W. Miller, “Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 388–403, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. J. Blackall, A. M. Bojesen, H. Christensen, and M. Bisgaard, “Reclassification of [Pasteurella] trehalosi as Bibersteinia trehalosi gen. nov., comb. nov,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 666–674, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. H. A. Sneath and M. Stevens, “Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 148–153, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. R. Dunbar, A. C. Ward, and G. Power, “Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica from tonsillar biopsies of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 210–213, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. N. J. L. Gilmour, D. A. Thompson, and J. Fraser, “The recovery of Pasteurella haemolytica from the tonsils of adult sheep,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 413–414, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. C. S. Ward, D. L. Hunter, M. D. Jaworski et al., “Pasteurella spp. in sympatric bighorn and domestic sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 544–557, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Tomassini, B. Gonzales, G. C. Weiser, and W. Sischo, “An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 930–940, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. K. Onderka, S. A. Rawluk, and W. D. Wishart, “Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica,” Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 439–444, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. P. Dassanayake, W. Liu, W. C. Davis, W. J. Foreyt, and S. Srikumaran, “Bighorn sheep β2-integrin LFA-1 serves as a receptor for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 743–747, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Safaee, G. C. Weiser, E. F. Cassirer, R. R. Ramey, and S. T. Kelley, “Microbial diversity in bighorn sheep revealed by culture-independent methods,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 545–555, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. S. Miller, G. C. Weiser, A. C. Ward, M. L. Drew, and P. L. Chapman, “Bighorn sheep Pasteurellaceae isolates from submissions to the Caine Veterinary Teaching Center (1989–2004),” American Journal of Veterinary Research. In press.
  59. D. S. Miller, G. C. Weiser, A. C. Ward, M. L. Drew, and P. L. Chapman, “Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) Pasteurellaceae isolates from submissions to the Caine Veterinary Teaching Center (1990–2004),” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 150, no. 3-4, pp. 284–288, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  60. M. T. Collins, I. A. Gardner, F. B. Garry, A. J. Roussel, and S. J. Wells, “Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 229, no. 12, pp. 1912–1919, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. J. DaMassa, P. S. Wakenell, and D. L. Brooks, “Mycoplasmas of goats and sheep,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 101–113, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. C. Ruffin, “Mycoplasma infections in small ruminants,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 315–332, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. F. Cassirer, K. M. Rudolph, P. Fowler, V. L. Coggins, D. L. Hunter, and M. W. Miller, “Evaluation of ewe vaccination as a tool for increasing bighorn lamb survival following pasteurellosis epizootics,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. A. Brogden, D. Rose, R. C. Cutlip, H. D. Lehmkuhl, and J. G. Tully, “Isolation and identification of mycoplasmas from the nasal cavity of sheep,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1669–1672, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. A. Brogden, H. D. Lehmkuhl, and R. C. Cutlip, “Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats,” Veterinary Research, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 233–254, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Van Campen, K. Frolich, and M. Hofmann, “Pestivirus infections,” in Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals, E. Williams and I. K. Barker, Eds., pp. 232–244, Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 3rd edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  67. D. G. Pugh, Sheep and Goat Medicine, W.B.Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2002.
  68. E. E. Brako, R. W. Fulton, S. S. Nicholson, and G. F. Amborski, “Prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, goat respiratory syncytial, bovine leukemia, and bluetongue viral antibodies in sheep,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 813–816, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. K. Yang, I. J. Hwang, B. H. Kim et al., “Serosurveillance of viral diseases in korean native goats (Capra hircus),” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 977–979, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. K. Clark, D. A. Jessup, M. D. Kock, and R. A. Weaver, “Survey of desert bighorn sheep in California for exposure to selected infectious diseases,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 187, no. 11, pp. 1175–1179, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. R. Dunbar, D. A. Jessup, J. F. Evermann, and W. J. Foreyt, “Seroprevalence of respiratory syncytial virus in free-ranging bighorn sheep,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 187, no. 11, pp. 1173–1174, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. R. Spraker, J. K. Collins, W. J. Adrian, and J. H. Olterman, “Isolation and serologic evidence of a respiratory syncytial virus in bighorn sheep from Colorado,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 416–418, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. W. P. Taylor, A. N. C. Okeke, and N. N. Shidali, “Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 171–175, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. R. Ackermann and K. A. Brogden, “Response of the ruminant respiratory tract to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1079–1088, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. T. Thorne, N. Kingston, W. R. Jolley, and R. C. Bergstrom, Diseases of Wildlife in Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyo, USA, 2nd edition, 1982.
  76. J. R. Georgi, Parasitology for Veterinarians, W.B.Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 1985.
  77. E. P. Hoberg, A. Kocan, and L. G. Rickard, “Gastrointestinal strongyles in wild ruminants,” in Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals, W. M. Samuel, M. J. Pybus, and A. Kocan, Eds., pp. 193–227, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa , USA, 2nd edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  78. M. J. Pybus and H. Shave, “Muellerius capillaris (Mueller, 1889) (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): an unusual finding in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis Shaw) in South Dakota,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 284–288, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. V. O. Ezenwa, A. M. Hines, E. A. Archie, E. P. Hoberg, I. M. Asmundsson, and J. T. Hogg, “Muellerius capillaris dominates the lungworm community of bighorn sheep at the National Bison Range, Montana,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 988–993, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. J. Jenkins, Ecological investigation of a new host-parasite relationship: paralephstrongylus odocoilei in thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), Ph.D. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, 2005.
  81. E. P. Hoberg, “Invasive processes, mosaics and the structure of helminth parasite faunas,” OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 255–272, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. F. Brauer and P. Van Den Driessche, “Models for transmission of disease with immigration of infectives,” Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 143–154, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. Armstrong, R. Jakob-Hoff, and U. S. Seal, Animal Movements and Disease Risk: A Workbook, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, Minn, USA, 2001.
  84. C. Zepeda, M. Salman, and R. Ruppanner, “International trade, animal health and veterinary epidemiology: challenges and opportunities,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 261–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. Budd, Morag Bell, and T. Brown, “Of plagues, planes and politics: controlling the global spread of infectious diseases by air,” Political Geography, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 426–435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus