Table 1: Incidence of eye disease compared with antioxidant intake and/or plasma levels of antioxidants molecules in humans.

AuthorsObjectiveAntioxidantsConclusion

Berendschot et al. (2002) [62]376 subjects of 18 to 75 years. To investigate whether serum levels of antioxidants influence the lens optical density.Lutein, zeaxanthin, Vit. C, and α-tocopherol.High serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin may retard aging of the lens.
Delcourt et al. (1999) [63]2584 subjects, >60 years. To determine plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes related with cataract and age-related macular degeneration.Enzymes: GPx and SOD.High levels of plasma GPx were associated with age-related macular degeneration and cataract prevalence. High levels of plasma SOD were associated with high cataract prevalence.
Delcourt et al. (2003) [64]1947 subjects, >60 years. To determine the association between antioxidant enzymes activity and incidence of cataract.Enzymes: SOD and GPx.High levels of plasma GPx and SOD were associated with high cataract incidence.
Gale et al. (2001) [65]372 subjects of 66 to 75 years. To determine plasma levels of some vitamins and carotenoids related with cataract risk incidence.Vit. C, Vit. E, α and β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin.High levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein were associated with low risk of cataract.
Jacques et al. (2001) [66]478 women of 53 to 73 years. To assess the relation between usual nutrient intake, plasma vitamins concentration and subsequently diagnosed age-related nuclear lens opacities.Vit. C, Vit. E, riboflavin, β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.High Vit. C intake is associated with low risk of cataract incidence. High Vit. C and Vit. E plasma concentrations are associated with low lenticular opacity.
Lyle et al. (1999) [67]400 subjects of 50 to 86 years, 7 years followup. To assess the relation of serum carotenoids and tocopherols levels to the incidence of cataract.Carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol.High serum levels of tocopherols are associated with low risk of cataract.

Vit. C: vitamin C; Vit. E: vitamin E; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; CAT: catalase.