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Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2011, Article ID 905768, 17 pages
Review Article

A Brief Review on Diagnosis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease of Livestock: Conventional to Molecular Tools

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati 781022, India
2Division of Animal Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar 243122, India
3Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar 243122, India
4Division of Poultry Science, Central Avian Research Institute (CARI), Izatnagar 243122, India
5Division of Veterinary Biochemistry and Physiology, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Avikanagar, India

Received 27 December 2010; Revised 25 March 2011; Accepted 20 April 2011

Academic Editor: Suresh Tikoo

Copyright © 2011 Neeta Longjam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the highly contagious diseases of domestic animals. Effective control of this disease needs sensitive, specific, and quick diagnostic tools at each tier of control strategy. In this paper we have outlined various diagnostic approaches from old to new generation in a nutshell. Presently FMD diagnosis is being carried out using techniques such as Virus Isolation (VI), Sandwich-ELISA (S-ELISA), Liquid-Phase Blocking ELISA (LPBE), Multiplex-PCR (m-PCR), and indirect ELISA (DIVA), and real time-PCR can be used for detection of antibody against nonstructural proteins. Nucleotide sequencing for serotyping, microarray as well as recombinant antigen-based detection, biosensor, phage display, and nucleic-acid-based diagnostic are on the way for rapid and specific detection of FMDV. Various pen side tests, namely, lateral flow, RT-LAMP, Immunostrip tests, and so forth. are also developed for detection of the virus in field condition.