Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 931948, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/931948
Research Article

Longitudinal Pathogenesis Study of Young Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) after Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)

1AgResearch Invermay, P.O. Box 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand
214 Rimu Lane, Wanaka 9305, New Zealand
3Disease Research Laboratory, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
4AgResearch Wallaceville, P.O. Box 40063, Upper Hutt, New Zealand

Received 9 December 2011; Accepted 15 April 2012

Academic Editor: Michael D. Welsh

Copyright © 2012 Colin Mackintosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. G. Mackintosh, G. W. de Lisle, D. M. Collins, and J. F. T. Griffin, “Mycobacterial diseases of deer,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 163–174, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. G. Mackintosh and J. F. T. Griffin, “Paratuberculosis in deer, camelids and other ruminants,” in Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, Control, M. A. C. D. M. Behr, Ed., pp. 179–187, CABI, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. G. Mackintosh, R. G. Clark, B. Thompson, B. Tolentino, J. F. T. Griffin, and G. W. de Lisle, “Age susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 143, no. 2–4, pp. 255–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. J. Allen, K. T. Park, G. M. Barrington, K. K. Lahmers, M. J. Hamilton, and W. C. Davis, “Development of a bovine ileal cannulation model to study the immune response and mechanisms of pathogenesis of paratuberculosis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 453–463, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Khare, J. S. Nunes, J. F. Figueiredo et al., “Early phase morphological lesions and transcriptional responses of bovine ileum infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 717–728, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. M. Dennis, L. A. Reddacliff, and R. J. Whittington, “Longitudinal study of clinicopathological features of Johne's disease in sheep naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 565–575, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. G. Mackintosh, G. W. de Lisle, and J. F. T. Griffin, “Experimental challenge model for paratuberculosis in red deer,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis. August 14–18, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, E. J. B. Manning and S. S. Nielsen, Eds., pp. 115–117, 2006.
  8. C. G. Mackintosh, R. E. Labes, R. G. Clark, G. W. de Lisle, and J. F. T. Griffin, “Experimental infections in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) with a bovine and an ovine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. G. Mackintosh, R. E. Labes, B. R. Thompson et al., “Efficacy, immune responses and side-effects of vaccines against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. F. T. Griffin, J. P. Cross, D. N. Chinn, C. R. Rogers, and G. S. Buchan, “Diagnosis of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in New Zealand red deer (Cervus elaphus) using a composite blood test and antibody assays,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 42, pp. 173–179, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. F. T. Griffin, E. Spittle, C. R. Rodgers et al., “Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus),” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1401–1409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Robinson, R. O'Brien, C. Mackintosh, and F. Griffin, “Differential immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 963–969, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. J. Whittington, I. Marsh, S. Mcallister, M. J. Turner, D. J. Marshall, and C. A. Fraser, “Evaluation of modified BACTEC 12B radiometric medium and solid media for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from sheep,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1077–1083, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. W. de Lisle, G. F. Yates, and R. H. Montgomery, “The emergence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in farmed deer in New Zealand—a review of 619 cases,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 58–62, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. H. Whitlock, S. J. Wells, R. W. Sweeney, and J. Van Tiem, “ELISA and fecal culture for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease): sensitivity and specificity of each method,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 77, no. 3-4, pp. 387–398, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. G. Clark, J. F. T. Griffin, and C. G. Mackintosh, “Johne's disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus): an histopathological grading system, and comparison of paucibacillary and multibacillary disease,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 90–97, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. G. Clark, J. F. T. Griffin, and C. G. Mackintosh, “Modification to histopathological lesion severity score in red deer (Cervus elaphus) affected by Johne's disease,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 261–262, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. H. Pemberton, “Diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle using mesenteric lymph node biopsy: accuracy in clinical suspects,” Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 217–219, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. C. Sockett, D. J. Carr, W. D. Richards, and M. T. Collins, “A repository of specimens for comparison of diagnostic testing procedures for bovine paratuberculosis,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 188–191, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. S. McConnel, R. C. Churchill, M. M. Richard, C. M. Corkhill, L. A. Reddacliff, and R. J. Whittington, “Surgical method for biopsy of terminal ileum and mesenteric lymph node of sheep for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 149–151, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. J. L. Gilmour, K. W. Angus, and B. Mitchell, “Intestinal infection and host response to oral administration of Mycobacterium johnei in sheep,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 223–235, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. W. Wu, M. Livesey, S. K. Schmoller et al., “Invasion and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during early stages of Johne's disease in calves,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 2110–2119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. R. Stabel, “Host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a complex arsenal,” Animal health research reviews, vol. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 61–70, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. M. Winslow, A. Cooper, W. Reiley, M. Chatterjee, and D. L. Woodland, “Early T-cell responses in tuberculosis immunity,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 225, no. 1, pp. 284–299, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. G. Mackintosh, R. G. Clark, B. Tolentino, G. W. de Lisle, S. Liggett, and J. F. T. Griffin, “Immunological and pathological responses of red deer resistant or susceptible genotypes, to experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis,” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 143, no. 1-2, pp. 131–142, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus