Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014, Article ID 341047, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/341047
Research Article

Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

1Department of Wild Life Science, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007, India
2Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Salem 636 001, India
3Department of Veterinary Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, TANUVAS, Chennai 600 007, India
4National Research Centre on Mithun, ICAR, Jharnapani, Nagaland 797106, India

Received 19 January 2014; Revised 4 April 2014; Accepted 4 April 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Remo Lobetti

Copyright © 2014 M. Veeraselvam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. J. Kreeger, G. D. Del Giudice, U. S. Seal, and P. D. Karns, “Immobilization of white-tailed deer with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and antagonism by tolazoline hydrochloride,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 407–412, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. A. Logan, E. T. Thorne, L. L. Irwin, and R. Skinner, “Immobilizing wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 97–103, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Ferreras, J. J. Aldama, J. F. Beltrán, and M. Delibes, “Immobilization of the endangered Iberian lynx with xylazine- and ketamine-hydrochloride,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 65–68, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. H. Herbst, C. Packer, and U. S. Seal, “Immobilization of free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) with a combination of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 401–404, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. S. Seal, D. L. Armstrong, and L. G. Simmons, “Yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride immobilization of Bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 296–300, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Ramsay, I. Stirling, L. O. Knutsen, and E. Broughton, “Use of yohimbine hydrochloride to reverse immobilization of polar bears by ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 396–400, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. D. Page, “Sloth bear immobilization with a ketamine-xylazine combination: reversal with yohimbine,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 189, no. 9, pp. 1050–1051, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Veeraselvam, R. Sridhar, T. M. A. Senthilkumar, M. G. Jayathangaraj, and N. V. Rajesh, “Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in captive sloth bears (melursus ursinus),” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 113–114, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. E. M. Addison and G. B. Kolenosky, “Use of Ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride to immobilize black bears (Ursus americanus),” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 253–258, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Lee, R. Schweinsburg, F. Kernan, and J. Haigh, “Immobilization of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, Phipps) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride,” Journal of wildlife Diseases, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 331–336, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. M. Harthoorn, C Hemical Capture of Animals, Bailliere Tindall, London, UK, 1976.
  12. M. Tryland, E. Brun, A. E. Derocher et al., “Plasma biochemical values from apparently healthy free-ranging polar bears from Svalbard,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 566–575, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. W. Schalm, N. C. Jain, and E. J. Caroll, Veterinary Hematology, Lea and Febiger, Philadephia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 1975.
  14. G. W. Snedecor and W. C. Cochran, Statistical M Ethods, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 8th edition, 1989.
  15. M. E. Fowler, Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1986.
  16. D. K. Das and G. S. Murthy, “Immobilization of a sloth bear with xylazine ketamine and reversal with Yohimbine,” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 776–777, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Bush, R. S. Custer, and E. E. Smith, “Use of dissociative anesthetics for the immobilization of captive bears: blood gas, hematology and biochemistry values,” Journal of wildlife diseases, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 481–489, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. D. Wallach and W. J. Boever, Diseases of Exotic Wild Animals, W.B.Saunders, Tokyo, Japan, 1983.
  19. A. A. Shanmugam, J. K. Kumar, I. Selvaraj, and V. Selvaraj, “Hematology of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) from two locations in India,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 509–518, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. J. Matula, J. S. Lindzey, and H. Rothenbocher, “Sex, age and seasonal differences in the blood profile of black bears captured in Northeastern Pennsylvania,” International Association for Bear Research and Management, vol. 4, pp. 49–56, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. T. Schroeder, “Blood chemistry, haematology and condition evaluation of Black Bears in North-coastal California,” International Association for Bear Research and Management, vol. 7, pp. 33–349, 1987. View at Google Scholar