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Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014, Article ID 650272, 8 pages
Research Article

Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

1Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, 1000 ASU Drive No. 750, Alcorn State, Lorman, MS 39096, USA
2Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory Beltsville Agricultural Center, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
3Cooperative Agricultural Research Center, Prairie View A&M University, P.O. Box 519, AGRL No. 112, Prairie View, TX, USA
4Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA

Received 21 May 2014; Revised 10 September 2014; Accepted 15 September 2014; Published 2 October 2014

Academic Editor: Lorraine M. Sordillo

Copyright © 2014 M. C. Mason et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0) were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4) and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7), cows received no treatment (control; ), a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; ), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; ), or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; ). Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h) in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM). Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater () in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined () from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (). Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.