Table 1: Physicochemical assessment results of raw cow milk in Pemba.

Physicochemical parameterCategory Number (%) of milk samples from different districtsTotal number (%) of milk samples ()
Chakechake
Micheweni
Mkoani
Wete

ColourNormal milky34 (97.1)14 (93.3)15 (100)33 (100)96 (97.9)
Abnormal1 (2.9)1 (6.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (2.1)

SmellNormal milk smell33 (94.3)12 (80.0)15 (100)31 (93.9)91 (92.9)
Bad2 (5.7)2 (20.0)0 (0.0)2 (6.1)7 (7.1)

Clotting on alcohol testNo31 (88.6)14 (93.3)13 (86.7)31 (88.6)89 (90.8)
Yes4 (11.4)1 (6.7)2 (13.3)2 (11.4)9 (9.2)

pH<6.68 (22.9)6 (40.6)4 (26.7)17 (51.5)35 (35.7)
Normal (6.6–6.8)26 (74.3)9 (60.0)10 (66.7)15 (45.5)60 (61.2)
>6.81 (2.9)0 (0.0)1 (6.7)1 (3.0)3 (3.1)

Specific gravity (g/ml)<1.02713 (37.1)5 (33.3)8 (53.4)8 (24.2)34 (34.7)
Normal (1.027–1.032)16 (45.7)8 (53.4)7 (46.6)24 (72.7)55 (56.1)
>1.0326 (17.1)2 (13.3)0 (0.0)1 (3.1)9 (9.2)

Ash contentsNormal (0.4–5%)35 (100)15 (100)15 (100)33 (100)98 (100)

ButterfatNormal (3.25–8.5%)22 (62.9)13 (86.7)6 (40.0)28 (84.8)69 (70.4)
<3.25%13 (37.1)2 (13.3)9 (60.0)5 (15.2)29 (29.6)
>8.5%0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)

Total solidsNormal (10–14%)30 (85.7)13 (86.7)10 (66.7)31 (93.9)84 (85.7)
<105 (14.3)2 (13.3)5 (33.3)2 (6.1)14 (14.3)
>14%0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)