Veterinary Medicine International / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Natural Concurrent Infections with Black Spot Disease and Multiple Bacteriosis in Farmed Nile Tilapia in Central Kenya

Table 1

Mean values of physicochemical parameters of pond water.

Physicochemical parameters of waterRecorded pond value

(1) Temperature (°C)28.2c
(2) Dissolved oxygen (mgl−1)4.2c
(3) pH8.5c
(4) Total ammonia free nitrogen (mgl−1)15.8a
(5) Alkalinity (mgl−1)112a
(6) Hardness (mgl−1)68c
(7) Nitrites (mgl−1)0.058a
(8) Nitrates (mgl−1)58a
(9) Phosphates (mgl−1)0.046c

Note. The recommended range of physicochemical parameters of water for culturing Nile tilapia in ponds are temperature = 22–32°C; dissolved oxygen = 5–7 mgl−1; pH = 6.5–8.5; ammonia 0.3–2 mgl−1; alkalinity 20–100 mgl−1; hardness 10–100 mgl−1; nitrite = <0.02 mgl−1; nitrates = 0.1–4.5 mgl−1, and phosphorous = 0.01–3 mgl−1 [3638]. Key: a = pond value was above the recommended range; b = pond value was below the recommended range; and c = pond value was within the recommended range.

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