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Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4359843, 12 pages
Research Article

Performance Improvement of Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems with Orthogonal Codebook-Based Phase-Rotation Precoding

1School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
2Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering at Wadi Aldawaser, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Aldawaser 11991, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Essam Sourour

Received 27 May 2017; Revised 27 September 2017; Accepted 2 October 2017; Published 9 November 2017

Academic Editor: Xianfu Lei

Copyright © 2017 Mohammed Al-Ansi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper considers codebook-based precoding for Space Shift Keying (SSK) modulation MIMO system. Codebook-based precoding avoids the necessity for full knowledge of Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter and alleviates the complexity of generating a CSI-optimized precoder. The receiver selects the codeword that maximizes the Minimum Euclidean Distance (MED) of the received constellation and feeds back its index to the transmitter. In this paper, we first develop a new accurate closed-form Bit Error Rate (BER) for SSK without precoding. Then, we investigate several phase-rotation codebooks with quantized set of phases and systematic structure. Namely, we investigate the Full-Combination, Walsh-Hadamard, Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences, and Orthogonal Array Testing codebooks. In addition, since the size of the Full-Combination codebook may be large, we develop an iterative search method for fast selection of its best codeword. The proposed codebooks significantly improve the BER performance in Rayleigh and Nakagami fading channels, even at high spatial correlation among transmit antennas and CSI estimation error. Moreover, we show that only four phases are sufficient and further phase granularity does yield significant gain. This avoids hardware multiplication during searching the codebook and applying the codeword.