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Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Volume 2017, Article ID 6747052, 11 pages
Research Article

Clustering Optimization for Out-of-Band D2D Communications

1The Bonch-Bruevich State University of Telecommunication, 22 Prospekt Bolshevikov, St. Petersburg, Russia
2Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St., Moscow, Russia
3Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Korkeakoulunkatu 10, Tampere, Finland

Correspondence should be addressed to R. Kirichek; ur.tus@kehcirik

Received 24 April 2017; Revised 12 August 2017; Accepted 12 September 2017; Published 22 October 2017

Academic Editor: Pai-Yen Chen

Copyright © 2017 A. Paramonov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Significant increase in multimedia traffic challenges 5G networks in terms of capacity and correspondent QoS parameters. Device-to-device communication paradigm has already become an integral part of 3GPP standards; nevertheless it has not yet been widely deployed due to many different reasons. D2D is expected to leverage implementation of many qualitatively new services and to efficiently accomplish it D2D devices are supposed to form clusters. Due to practical limitations, current D2D implementations are mostly out-of-band and use Wi-Fi Direct. In this paper, we propose a novel model for throughput optimization in out-of-band D2D clusters. We delivered numerical results for different typical cluster member distributions and revealed key functional dependencies. Further, for the first time we compare clustering algorithms for out-of-band D2D and identify effective clustering algorithm that increases network resource utilization rate.