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Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Volume 2017, Article ID 9805784, 9 pages
Research Article

Multihop Data Delivery Virtualization for Green Decentralized IoT

1The Youth College of Political Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, 81 Zhawudalu Street, Saihan District, Hohhot 010022, China
2The Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
3The VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1100, 90571 Oulu, Finland
4The Information Technology Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan
5The Information Systems Architecture Research Division, National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Celimuge Wu;

Received 27 August 2017; Accepted 13 November 2017; Published 25 December 2017

Academic Editor: Jun Huang

Copyright © 2017 Lifeng Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Decentralized communication technologies (i.e., ad hoc networks) provide more opportunities for emerging wireless Internet of Things (IoT) due to the flexibility and expandability of distributed architecture. However, the performance degradation of wireless communications with the increase of the number of hops becomes the main obstacle in the development of decentralized wireless IoT systems. The main challenges come from the difficulty in designing a resource and energy efficient multihop communication protocol. Transmission control protocol (TCP), the most frequently used transport layer protocol for achieving reliable end-to-end communications, cannot achieve a satisfactory result in multihop wireless scenarios as it uses end-to-end acknowledgment which could not work well in a lossy scenario. In this paper, we propose a multihop data delivery virtualization approach which uses multiple one-hop reliable transmissions to perform multihop data transmissions. Since the proposed protocol utilizes hop-by-hop acknowledgment instead of end-to-end feedback, the congestion window size at each TCP sender node is not affected by the number of hops between the source node and the destination node. The proposed protocol can provide a significantly higher throughput and shorter transmission time as compared to the end-to-end approach. We conduct real-world experiments as well as computer simulations to show the performance gain from our proposed protocol.