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Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Volume 2018, Article ID 5349894, 24 pages
Review Article

Network Protocols, Schemes, and Mechanisms for Internet of Things (IoT): Features, Open Challenges, and Trends

1Department of Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Kozani 50100, Greece
2Computer Science Department, The University of Sheffield International Faculty, CITY College, Thessaloniki 54626, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Thomas D. Lagkas;

Received 29 March 2018; Revised 30 July 2018; Accepted 9 August 2018; Published 13 September 2018

Academic Editor: Juan F. Valenzuela-Valdés

Copyright © 2018 Anna Triantafyllou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Internet of Things (IoT) constitutes the next step in the field of technology, bringing enormous changes in industry, medicine, environmental care, and urban development. Various challenges are to be met in forming this vision, such as technology interoperability issues, security and data confidentiality requirements, and, last but not least, the development of energy efficient management systems. In this paper, we explore existing networking communication technologies for the IoT, with emphasis on encapsulation and routing protocols. The relation between the IoT network protocols and the emerging IoT applications is also examined. A thorough layer-based protocol taxonomy is provided, while how the network protocols fit and operate for addressing the recent IoT requirements and applications is also illustrated. What is the most special feature of this paper, compared to other survey and tutorial works, is the thorough presentation of the inner schemes and mechanisms of the network protocols subject to IPv6. Compatibility, interoperability, and configuration issues of the existing and the emerging protocols and schemes are discussed based on the recent advanced of IPv6. Moreover, open networking challenges such as security, scalability, mobility, and energy management are presented in relation to their corresponding features. Lastly, the trends of the networking mechanisms in the IoT domain are discussed in detail, highlighting future challenges.