Table 2: Mapping enabling innovations /architectural impacts to identified gaps.

Innovation elements/enablerAffected network domains, NFs and layers of the architectureGaps addressed

Telco-cloud-enabled protocol designController layer functions, selected UP VNFs in Network layer#1
#2
#8

Telco-cloud-aware interface design and requirements analysisRAN-level UP (and CP) VNFs, Xn and F1 interfaces, Network layer#1
#2
#9

Terminal-aware protocol designRAN-domain CP VNFs and interfaces incl. F1#4,
#5

Inter-slice context sharing and optimisationCN-level UP and CP NFS, M&O layer functions#6

Inter-slice coordinationCN-domain CP NFs, service-based interfaces, Network layer#6

Terminal analytics driven slice selection / controlCN-domain CP NFs (AMF, NSSF, NWDAF), interfaces to UE and Itf-X to M&O layer#6

Inter-slice RRM for Dynamic TDD ScenariosRAN (Inter-slice RRM, IM, and Unified Scheduler)#6

Context-aware relaying mode selectionRAN (Dynamic RAN Control Unit at RRC), M&O Layer (Cross-slice M&O)#3,
#6

Slice-aware RAT selectionRAN-domain CP NFs, Network, Controller and M&O layer as well as associated interfaces#5

Inter-slice RRM using the SDN frameworkRAN-domain NFs, XSC/ISC and applications, Network layer, Controller layer, interfaces: NBI, SoBI, MOLI#5,
#12

Big data analytics for resource assignmentCN (NWDAF), M&O layer (Cross-slice M&O)#4,
#7

Framework for slice admission controlNSMF (Cross-slice M&O), NFVO, M&O layer and respective interfaces (e.g., Os-Ma-Nfvo)#5,
#6

Framework for cross-slice congestion controlNSMF (Cross-slice M&O), NFVO, M&O layer and respective interfaces (e.g., Os-Ma-Nfvo)#5,
#6,
#12

Slice admission control using genetic optimisersNSMF (Cross-slice M&O), NFVO, M&O layer and respective interfaces (e.g., MOLI, Os-Ma-Nfvo)#6,
#12

ML-based optimisation using an extended FlexRAN implementationRAN-domain VNFs (CP and UP), Network layer#3,
#10

Computational analysis of open source mobile network stack implementationsRAN-domain VNFs (CP and UP), Network layer#11

Measurement campaigns on the performance of higher layers of the protocol stackHigher-layer RAN VNFs (CP and UP), Network layer#7