Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

USPF: Underwater Shrewd Packet Flooding Mechanism through Surrogate Holding Time

Table 3

Comparative analysis of underwater next forwarding nodes selection protocols.

TypeProtocolObjectivesPrinciple areaNeighbors selection strategyForwarder selection strategy

Localization routing protocolsVirtual shapeVBFRobust, scalable, energy efficientDistance informationNeighbors placed inside pipeline from source to sinkMinimum distance to the sink inside the pipeline
HH‐VBFEnergy efficient, robustDistance informationNeighbors placed inside each single pipeline from each source to destinationMinimum distance to the sink inside pipelines
Energy efficiencyPEREnergy efficient, improving the network lifetimeResidual energy, distance information, angle informationNeighbors based on their angle and distance to sinkMinimum distance to the sink with angle value and the highest residual energy
SEANAREnergy efficient, topology awareResidual energy, distance information, node degreeNeighbors placed in layer (inner and aside)Minimum distance to the sink with layer (inner and aside) and highest residual energy
Void awareVBVAVoid handling and energy efficientDistance informationNeighbors placed inside each single pipeline from each source to destinationMinimum distance to the sink inside pipelines
FBREnergy efficient, scalableDistance informationNeighbors placed in cone from each source to destinationMinimum distance to the sink inside the cone
DFRReliable packet deliveryDistance information and link quality (ETX)Neighbors placed in zone based on angle and referenceMinimum distance to the sink inside the zone with best link quality (ETX)

Nonlocalization routing protocolsAddressing basedH2‐DABRobust, scalable, energy efficientAddress informationNeighbors with lower dynamic addressThe lowest address
2H‐ACKEnsure reliable data deliveries, energy consumptionAddress informationNeighbors with lower dynamic addressThe lowest address
APCREnsure data deliveryLayer information residual energyNeighbors with lower IDLower ID with highest residual energy
Energy efficiencyDBREnergy efficient, scalableDepth informationShallower neighborsShallower neighbor with lowest holding time
DBMREnergy efficiencyDepth information, residual energyShallower neighbors with calculated weight valueShallower neighbor with the highest weight and lowest holding time