Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

Applied Bionics and Biomechanics / 2009 / Article

Open Access

Volume 6 |Article ID 378254 |

Antonio Frisoli, Fabio Salsedo, Massimo Bergamasco, Bruno Rossi, Maria C. Carboncini, "A Force-Feedback Exoskeleton for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation in Virtual Reality", Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, vol. 6, Article ID 378254, 12 pages, 2009.

A Force-Feedback Exoskeleton for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation in Virtual Reality

Received01 Apr 2009


This paper presents the design and the clinical validation of an upper-limb force-feedback exoskeleton, the L-EXOS, for robotic-assisted rehabilitation in virtual reality (VR). The L-EXOS is a five degrees of freedom exoskeleton with a wearable structure and anthropomorphic workspace that can cover the full range of motion of human arm. A specific VR application focused on the reaching task was developed and evaluated on a group of eight post-stroke patients, to assess the efficacy of the system for the rehabilitation of upper limb. The evaluation showed a significant reduction of the performance error in the reaching task (paired t-test, p < 0.02)

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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