Table 5: Intradialytic alterations of the immune system.

Alterations during HDLiterature (comments)Membrane

Natural killer cellsFrequencies ↓Grooteman et al. [14]8CM, CA, PS
Present publication (transient)15PN
Natural killer T cellsFrequencies ↓Present publication (transient)15PN
CD4+ T lymphocytesFrequencies ↑Grooteman et al. [14]8CM, CA, PS
Present publication15PN
Szczepańska et al. [15]12
CD8+ T lymphocytesFrequencies =Grooteman et al. [14]8PS
Frequencies ↓Grooteman et al. [14]8CM, CA
Present publication15PN
Number ↓Yoon et al. [13]21
Activation marker (CD25, HLA-DR)Frequencies =Grooteman et al. [14]8CM, CA, PS
Frequencies ↑Present publication (CD25, CD4+ HLA-DR+ T cells)15PN
Frequencies ↓Present publication (CD8+ HLA-DR+ T cells)15PN
Regulatory T cellsFrequencies ↑Present publication15PN
Complement activationTransient increase within 15 minutesGirndt et al. [18] (MAC)14PA, H
Transient increase in C3a within 30 minutesRousseau et al. [11]6PS, CA, CU
Varela et al. [12]12CM, H, MC
Hörl et al. [10] (all: CU > S)
Transient increase in C5a within 60 minutesVarela et al. [12]12CM, H, MC
Transient decrease within 60 minutesPresent publication (alternative & classical pathway)15PN
TGFβTransient decrease in concentrationPresent publication15PN
Stefoni et al. [16]155H, PAN, PS
sCD30Concentration ↑Present publication15PN

Abbreviations: : number of dialyzed patients. Membrane: CA: cellulose acetate; CM: cuprammonium; CU: cuprophan; H: Hemophan; MC: modified cellulose; PA: polyamide; PAN: polyacrylnitrile; PN: polynephron; PS: polysulphone. References: Grooteman et al. [14], Szczepańska et al. [15], Yoon et al. [13], Girndt et al. [18], Rousseau et al. [11], Varela et al. [12], Hörl [10], and Stefoni et al. [16].