Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2011, Article ID 629538, 3 pages
Review Article

Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis: Correlation, Causality, and Controversy

1Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine and School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Universiteitssingel 50, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2Academic MS Center Limburg, Orbis Medical Center, P.O. Box 5500, 6130 MB Sittard, The Netherlands

Received 13 September 2010; Accepted 14 September 2010

Academic Editor: Sreeram Ramagopalan

Copyright © 2011 Joost Smolders. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The last years, many studies reported associations between correlates of vitamin D exposure and several correlates of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. This review discusses studies on vitamin D status, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and relapse activity of MS. Furthermore, several considerations for intervention studies on vitamin D supplementation in MS are provided.