Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2014, Article ID 782045, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/782045
Review Article

Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

1Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Avenue, Stop 8007, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
2Center for Environmental Health Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA

Received 3 January 2014; Accepted 10 April 2014; Published 29 April 2014

Academic Editor: K. Michael Pollard

Copyright © 2014 Jean C. Pfau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Germolec, D. H. Kono, J. Pfau, and K. Pollard, “Animal models used to examine the role of the environment in the development of autoimmune disease: findings from an NIEHS Expert Panel Workshop,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 285–293, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. G. S. Cooper, K. M. Gilbert, E. L. Greidinger et al., “Recent advances and opportunities in research on Lupus: environmental influences and mechanisms of disease,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 695–702, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. M. Brown, J. C. Pfau, M. A. Pershouse, and A. Holian, “Silica, apoptosis, and autoimmunity,” Journal of Immunotoxicology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 177–187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. J. C. Pfau, J. M. Brown, and A. Holian, “Silica-exposed mice generate autoantibodies to apoptotic cells,” Toxicology, vol. 195, no. 2-3, pp. 167–176, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Brown, A. J. Archer, J. C. Pfau, and A. Holian, “Silica accelerated systemic autoimmune disease in lupus-prone New Zealand mixed mice,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 415–421, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Brown, J. C. Pfau, and A. Holian, “Immunoglobulin and lymphocyte responses following silica exposure in New Zealand Mixed Mice,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 133–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. A. Sporn, “Mineralogy of asbestos,” Recent Results in Cancer Research, vol. 189, pp. 1–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. R. Gwinn, “Multiple modes of action of asbestos and related mineral fibers,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B: Critical Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 1–2, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. R. Gwinn, D. Devoney, A. M. Jarabek et al., “Meeting report: mode(s) of action of asbestos and related mineral fibers,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 1806–1810, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Carbone and H. Yang, “Molecular pathways: targeting mechanisms of asbestos and erionite carcinogenesis in mesothelioma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 598–604, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. H. Ryan, M. Dihle, S. Griffin et al., “Erionite in road gravel associated with interstitial and pleural changes-an occupational Hazard in Western United States,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 892–898, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. S. Van Gosen, T. A. Blitz, G. S. Plumlee, G. P. Meeker, and M. P. Pierson, “Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 419–430, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. S. Kim, K. S. Song, J. K. Lee et al., “Toxicogenomic comparison of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and asbestos,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 553–562, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. A. Shvedova, N. Yanamala, E. R. Kisin et al., “Long-term effects of carbon containing engineered nanomaterials and asbestos in the lung: one year post exposure comparisons,” American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 306, no. 2, pp. L170–L182, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. E. Aust, P. M. Cook, and R. F. Dodson, “Morphological and chemical mechanisms of elongated mineral particle toxicities,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B: Critical Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 40–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. N. Rom, W. D. Travis, and A. R. Brody, “Cellular and molecular basis of the asbestos-related diseases,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 408–422, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. J. Rosenthal, P. Simeonova, and E. Corsini, “Asbestos toxicity: an immunologic perspective,” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Pernis, E. C. Vigliani, and I. J. Selikoff, “Rheumatoid factor in serum of individuals exposed to asbestos,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 112–120, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. K. Nigam, A. M. Suthar, M. M. Patel et al., “Humoral immunological profile of workers exposed to asbestos in asbestos mines,” The Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 98, pp. 274–277, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. C. Pfau, J. J. Sentissi, G. Weller, and E. A. Putnam, “Assessment of autoimmune responses associated with asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Stansfield and J. R. Edge, “Circulating rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies in shipyard asbestos workers with pleural plaques,” British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 166–170, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Tamura, L. Dong, T. Tokuyama et al., “Study on the relationship between appearance of autoantibodies and chest X-ray findings of asbestos plant employees,” Japanese Journal of Industrial Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 406–412, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Turner-Warwick and W. R. Parkes, “Circulating rheumatoid and antinuclear factors in asbestos workers,” British Medical Journal, vol. 3, no. 721, pp. 492–495, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. V. Zerva, S. H. Constantopoulos, and H. M. Moutsopoulos, “Humoral immunity alterations after environmental asbestos exposure,” Respiration, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 237–241, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. S. Huuskonen, J. A. Rasanen, H. Harkonen, and S. Asp, “Asbestos exposure as a cause of immunological stimulation,” Scandinavian Journal of Respiratory Diseases, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 326–332, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. D. de Shazo, D. J. Hendrick, and J. E. Diem, “Immunologic aberrations in asbestos cement workers: dissociation from asbestosis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 454–461, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. J. Zone and W. N. Rom, “Circulating immune complexes in asbestos workers,” Environmental Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 383–389, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. C. Pfau, D. J. Blake, and M. J. Fritzler, “Autoantibody profiles of an asbestos-exposed population,” in Autoimmunity: Role, Regulation and Disorders, F. L. Vogel and L. F. Zimmermann, Eds., pp. 245–268, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Lange, “An epidemiological survey of immunological abnormalities in asbestos workers. I. Nonorgan and organ-specific autoantibodies,” Environmental Research, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 162–175, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Kumagai-Takei, M. Maeda, Y. Chen et al., “Asbestos induces reduction of tumor immunity,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2011, Article ID 481439, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. G. P. Meeker, A. M. Bern, I. K. Brownfield et al., “The composition and morphology of amphiboles from the Rainy Creek complex, near Libby, Montana,” American Mineralogist, vol. 88, no. 11-12, pp. 1955–1969, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. J. Buck, D. Goossens, R. V. Metcalf, B. McLaurin, M. Ren, and F. Freudenberger, “Naturally occurring asbestos: potential for human exposure, Southern Nevada, USA,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 77, pp. 2192–2204, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Turner Warwick, “Immunology and asbestosis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 927–930, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Toivanen, M. Salmivalli, and G. Molnar, “Pulmonary asbestosis and autoimmunity,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 6011, pp. 691–692, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Kagan, A. Solomon, and J. C. Cochrane, “Immunological studies of patients with asbestosis. I. Studies of cell mediated immunity,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 261–267, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. L. Haslam, A. Lukoszek, J. A. Merchant, and M. Turner-Warwick, “Lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutinin in patients with asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 178–188, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. J. Doll, J. E. Diem, and R. N. Jones, “Humoral immunologic abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos cement dust,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 509–512, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Tamura, T. Tokuyama, H. Kasuga, T. Yoneda, R. Miyazaki, and N. Narita, “Study on correlation between chest X-P course findings and change in antinuclear antibody in asbestos plant employees,” Journal of Occupational Health, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 138–141, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Ferro, C. N. Zebedeo, C. Davis, K. W. Ng, and J. C. Pfau, “Amphibole, but not chrysotile, asbestos induces anti-nuclear autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice,” Journal of Immunotoxicology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. C. Pfau, J. J. Sentissi, S. Li, L. Calderon-Garcidueńas, J. M. Brown, and D. J. Blake, “Asbestos-induced autoimmunity in C57Bl/6 mice,” Journal of Immunotoxicology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 129–137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. D. Salazar, C. B. Copeland, C. E. Wood, J. E. Schmid, and R. W. Luebke, “Evaluation of anti-nuclear antibodies and kidney pathology in Lewis rats following exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos,” Journal of Immunotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 329–333, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. D. Salazar, C. B. Copeland, and R. W. Luebke, “Effects of Libby amphibole asbestos exposure on two models of arthritis in the Lewis rat,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A: Current Issues, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 351–365, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. C. Pfau, S. Li, S. Holland, and J. J. Sentissi, “Alteration of fibroblast phenotype by asbestos-induced autoantibodies,” Journal of Immunotoxicology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 159–169, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. D. Heinlen, M. T. McClain, J. Merrill et al., “Clinical criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus precede diagnosis, and associated autoantibodies are present before clinical symptoms,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2344–2351, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. W. Noonan and J. C. Pfau, “Asbestos exposure and autoimmune disease,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, J. Nriagu, Ed., pp. 193–203, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  46. I. A. Greaves, “Rheumatoid “pneumoconiosis” (Caplan's syndrome) in an asbestos worker: a 17 years' follow-up,” Thorax, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 404–405, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. W. Noonan, J. C. Pfau, T. C. Larson, and M. R. Spence, “Nested case-control study of autoimmune disease in an asbestos-exposed population,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 1243–1247, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. A. Olsson, T. Skogh, O. Axelson, and G. Wingren, “Occupations and exposures in the work environment as determinants for rheumatoid arthritis,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. S. Gold, M. H. Ward, M. Dosemeci, and A. J. De Roos, “Systemic autoimmune disease mortality and occupational exposures,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 3189–3201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Inoue, E. Tanaka, T. Kato et al., “A case of MPO-ANCA-related vasculitis after asbestos exposure with progression of a renal lesion after improvement of interstitial pneumonia,” Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 496–501, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. Rihova, D. Maixnerova, E. Jancova et al., “Silica and asbestos exposure in ANCA-associated vasculitis with pulmonary involvement,” Renal Failure, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 605–608, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Stratta, A. Messuerotti, C. Canavese et al., “The role of metals in autoimmune vasculitis: epidemiological and pathogenic study,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 270, no. 1–3, pp. 179–190, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. P. Maguire, L. G. Meggs, J. Addonizio, and L. R. M. Del Guercio, “Association of asbestos exposure, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and acute renal failure,” New York State Journal of Medicine, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 357–359, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Sauni, P. Oksa, R. Jarvenpaa, J. E. Parker, and P. Roto, “Asbestos exposure: a potential cause of retroperitoneal fibrosis,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 418–421, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  55. T. Uibu, P. Oksa, A. Auvinen et al., “Asbestos exposure as a risk factor for retroperitoneal fibrosis,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9419, pp. 1422–1426, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Vaglio, “Retroperitoneal fibrosis: new insights into clinical presentation and diagnosis,” Medicine, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 208–210, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. F. van Bommel, I. Jansen, T. R. Hendriksz, and A. L. Aarnoudse, “Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: prospective evaluation of incidence and clinicoradiologic presentation,” Medicine, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 193–201, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. Uibu, E. Vanhala, A. Sajantila et al., “Asbestos fibers in para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 464–470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Bunderson-Schelvan, J. C. Pfau, R. Crouch, and A. Holian, “Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B: Critical Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 122–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Goswami, V. Craven, D. L. Dahlstrom, D. Alexander, and F. Mowat, “Domestic asbestos exposure: a review of epidemiologic and exposure data,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 5629–5670, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  61. C. W. Noonan, “Exposure matrix development for the Libby cohort,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 963–967, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. D. Heinlen, L. L. Ritterhouse, M. T. McClain et al., “Ribosomal P autoantibodies are present before SLE onset and are directed against non-C-terminal peptides,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 719–727, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Birch, K. M. Serve, and J. C. Pfau, “Comparison of serum autoantibody prevalence in asbestos-exposed populations: Libby, MT and New York Pipefitters,” in Proceedings of the National Conference for Undergraduate Research, Weber State University, Ogden, Utah, USA, 2012.
  64. D. Bernstein, J. Dunnigan, T. Hesterberg et al., “Health risk of chrysotile revisited,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 154–183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. J. E. Craighead, B. T. Mossman, and B. J. Bradley, “Comparative studies on the cytotoxicity of amphibole and serpentine asbestos,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 34, pp. 37–46, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. Donaldson, F. A. Murphy, R. Duffin, and C. A. Poland, “Asbestos, carbon nanotubes and the pleural mesothelium: a review of the hypothesis regarding the role of long fibre retention in the parietal pleura, inflammation and mesothelioma,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 7, p. 5, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. S. Marchand, S. St-Hilaire, E. A. Putnam, K. M. Serve, and J. C. Pfau, “Mesothelial cell and anti-nuclear autoantibodies associated with pleural abnormalities in an asbestos exposed population of Libby MT,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 168–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. M. Cyphert, A. Nyska, R. K. Mahoney, M. C. Schladweiler, U. P. Kodavanti, and S. H. Gavett, “Sumas Mountain chrysotile induces greater lung fibrosis in Fischer344 rats than Libby amphibole, El Dorado tremolite, and Ontario ferroactinolite,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 405–415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. Y. Nishimura, M. Maeda, N. Kumagai-Takei et al., “Altered functions of alveolar macrophages and NK cells involved in asbestos-related diseases,” Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 198–204, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. T. Otsuki, M. Maeda, S. Murakami et al., “Immunological effects of silica and asbestos,” Cellular & Molecular Immunology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 261–268, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  71. N. Kumagai-Takei, Y. Nishimura, and M. Maeda, “Effect of asbestos exposure on differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in MLR of human PBMCs,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Li, M. E. Gunter, and N. K. Fukagawa, “Differential activation of the inflammasome in THP-1 cells exposed to chrysotile asbestos and Libby, “six-mix” amphiboles and subsequent activation of BEAS-2B cells,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 718–730, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Furuzawa-Carballeda, M. I. Vargas-Rojas, and A. R. Cabral, “Autoimmune inflammation from the Th17 perspective,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 169–175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. B. Afzali, G. Lombardi, R. I. Lechler, and G. M. Lord, “The role of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in human organ transplantation and autoimmune disease,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 32–46, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Kotake and N. Kamatani, “The role of IL-17 in joint destruction,” Drug News and Perspectives, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. S. Rodriguez-Reyna, J. Furuzawa-Carballeda, J. Cabiedes et al., “Th17 peripheral cells are increased in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis compared with limited illness: a cross-sectional study,” Rheumatology International, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 2653–2660, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. J. M. Hillegass, A. Shukla, M. B. MacPherson et al., “Mechanisms of oxidative stress and alterations in gene expression by Libby six-mix in human mesothelial cells,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 7, p. 26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Marczynski, A. B. Czuppon, W. Marek, G. Reichel, and X. Baur, “Increased incidence of DNA double strand breaks and anti-ds DNA antibodies in blood of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Pelclová, J. Bartůňková, Z. Fenclová, J. Lebedová, M. Hladíková, and H. Benáková, “Asbestos exposure and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity,” Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 662–668, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. I. Marie, S. Josse, P. Y. Hatron et al., “Interstitial lung disease in anti-Jo-1 patients with antisynthetase syndrome,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 800–808, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. C. Dostert, V. Pétrilli, R. Van Bruggen, C. Steele, B. T. Mossman, and J. Tschopp, “Innate immune activation through Nalp3 inflammasome sensing of asbestos and silica,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5876, pp. 674–677, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. H. Shannahan, A. J. Ghio, M. C. Schladweiler et al., “Transcriptional activation of inflammasome components by Libby amphibole and the role of iron,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 60–69, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Holian, M. O. Uthman, T. Goltsova, S. D. Brown, and R. F. Hamilton Jr., “Asbestos and silica-induced changes in human alveolar macrophage phenotype,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 105, supplement 5, pp. 1139–1142, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Overocker and J. C. Pfau, “Cytokine production modified by system X(c)- after PM10 and asbestos exposure,” Journal of Young Investigators, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 34–39, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  85. R. C. Perkins, R. K. Scheule, R. Hamilton, G. Gomes, G. Freidman, and A. Holian, “Human alveolar macrophage cytokine release in response to in vitro and in vivo asbestos exposure,” Experimental Lung Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. C. Perkins, R. K. Scheule, and A. Holian, “In Vitro bioactivity of asbestos for the human alveolar macrophage and its modification by IgG,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 532–537, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. R. Biswas, M. Bunderson-Schelvan, and A. Holian, “Potential role of the inflammasome-derived inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary fibrosis,” Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 105707, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. D. J. Blake, S. A. Wetzel, and J. C. Pfau, “Autoantibodies from mice exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos bind SSA/Ro52-enriched apoptotic blebs of murine macrophages,” Toxicology, vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 172–179, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. L. A. Casciola-Rosen, G. Anhalt, and A. Rosen, “Autoantigens targeted in systemic lupus erythematosus are clustered in two populations of surface structures on apoptotic keratinocytes,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 1317–1330, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. K. Wada and T. Kamitani, “Autoantigen Ro52 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 339, no. 1, pp. 415–421, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. V. C. Broaddus, L. Yang, L. M. Scavo, J. D. Ernst, and A. M. Boylan, “Asbestos induces apoptosis of human and rabbit pleural mesothelial cells via reactive oxygen species,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 98, no. 9, pp. 2050–2059, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. F. Hamilton, L. Li, R. Iyer, and A. Holian, “Asbestos induces apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages,” American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 271, no. 5, part 1, pp. L813–L819, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Gregor, R. W. Parkes, R. Du Bois, and M. Turner-Warwick, “Radiographic progression of asbestosis: preliminary report,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 330, pp. 147–156, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. L. A. Peipins, M. Lewin, S. Campolucci et al., “Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 111, no. 14, pp. 1753–1759, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. N. del Papa, P. L. Meroni, W. Barcellini et al., “Antibodies to endothelial cells in primary vasculitides mediate in vitro endothelial cytotoxicity in the presence of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. H. Ihn, S. Sato, M. Fujimoto et al., “Characterization of autoantibodies to endothelial cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc): association with pulmonary fibrosis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 203–209, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Y. Renaudineau, C. Dugué, M. Dueymes, and P. Youinou, “Antiendothelial cell antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 365–372, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. Chizzolini, E. Raschi, R. Rezzonico et al., “Autoantibodies to fibroblasts induce a proadhesive and proinflammatory fibroblast phenotype in patients with systemic sclerosis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1602–1613, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Fineschi, L. Goffin, R. Rezzonico et al., “Antifibroblast antibodies in systemic sclerosis induce fibroblasts to produce profibrotic chemokines, with partial exploitation of toll-like receptor 4,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 3913–3923, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. N. Ronda, E. Raschi, C. Testoni et al., “Anti-fibroblast antibodies in systemic sclerosis,” Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, supplement 11, pp. 858–864, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  101. K. M. Serve, B. Black, J. Szeinuk, and J. C. Pfau, “Asbestos-associated mesothelial cell autoantibodies promote collagen deposition in vitro,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 774–784, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  102. S. S. Baroni, M. Santillo, F. Bevilacqua et al., “Stimulatory autoantibodies to the PDGF receptor in systemic sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 25, pp. 2667–2676, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus