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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 952690, 7 pages
Research Article

Neuro-Fuzzy Model for the Prediction and Classification of the Fused Zone Levels of Imperfections in Ti6Al4V Alloy Butt Weld

1Department of Mechanics, Mathematics and Management, Politecnico di Bari, Viale Japigia 182, 70126 Bari, Italy
2Department of Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy

Received 10 May 2013; Accepted 3 September 2013

Academic Editor: Martha Guerrero

Copyright © 2013 Giuseppe Casalino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Weld imperfections are tolerable defects as stated from the international standard. Nevertheless they can produce a set of drawbacks like difficulty to assembly, reworking, limited fatigue life, and surface imperfections. In this paper Ti6Al4V titanium butt welds were produced by CO2 laser welding. The following tolerable defects were analysed: weld undercut, excess weld metal, excessive penetration, incomplete filled groove, root concavity, and lack of penetration. A neuro-fuzzy model for the prediction and classification of the defects in the fused zone was built up using the experimental data. Weld imperfections were connected to the welding parameters by feed forward neural networks. Then the imperfections were clustered using the C-means fuzzy clustering algorithm. The clusters were named after the ISO standard classification of the levels of imperfection for electron and laser beam welding of aluminium alloys and steels. Finally, a single-value metric was proposed for the assessment of the overall bead geometry quality. It combined an index for each defect and functioned according to the criterion “the-smallest-the-best.”