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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering publishes research in all areas of materials science and engineering, including the synthesis and properties of materials, and their applications in engineering applications.
Chief Editor, Amit Bandyopadhyay, is based at Washington State University and is interested in the fields of additive manufacturing or 3D printing of advanced materials. His current research is focused on metal additive manufacturing, biomedical devices and multi‑materials structures.
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Multivariate Prediction Model of Strength and Acoustic Emission Energy considering Parameter Correlation of Coal or Rock
Due to the heterogeneity of the internal structure and the different external loading conditions, the mechanical and acoustic emission (AE) characteristic parameters of coal and rock are discrete in the process of loading until failure, and many repeated and destructive tests need to be completed to obtain the performance parameters. It is of theoretical significance to explore the correlation of various parameters and to establish multiparameter regression models of coal rock strength and AE characteristics for predicting the strength and acoustic emission characteristic parameters of coal rock and reducing the repeated tests. For the coal sample from a coal seam of Longde Coal Mine in China, the mass density of coal samples and the acoustic velocity in the samples before loading are measured at first, and their respective coefficient of variation is analyzed. Then, the stress-strain curve and the time history curve of AE characteristic parameters are obtained by the uniaxial compression AE test of each coal sample according to the different loading rates. The influence of loading rate, mass density, and acoustic velocity on the mechanical and AE energy parameters of coal sample is analyzed by the section morphology of the coal sample after failure, the three-dimensional location map of AE, and the scanning micrograph of the electron microscope. Based on the least-square method, the multiple regression models of compressive strength, elastic modulus, and the maximum AE energy are established by mass density, acoustic velocity, and loading rate of coal samples. The results indicate that, for the coal samples from the same geological source, the obtained regression models can, respectively, predict the uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, and the maximum AE energy according to the predesigned loading rate, the acoustic velocity, and mass density of coal samples measured before loading, without too many repeated loading failure tests.
A Model Developed for Predicting Uniformity of Kyphoplasty Balloon Wall Thickness Based on the Orthogonal Test
In order to optimize the wall thickness distribution of medical balloon, kyphoplasty balloon was chosen as the research object, the uniformity of wall thickness distribution was taken as the evaluation index, and the influence of stretch blow molding process on the uniformity of kyphoplasty balloon was investigated. In this paper, 16 sets of orthogonal test schemes were studied by selecting four main parameters such as forming temperature, forming pressure, stretching distance, and holding time of stretch blow molding process based on the L16(44) Taguchi method orthogonal table. The statistical analysis showed that the forming temperature was an utmost parameter on the uniformity, while an optimal scheme was obtained and an optimal balloon with the uniformity of 95.86% was formed under the scheme. To further quantify the relationship between the uniformity and the parameters, artificial neural network (ANN) and nonlinear regression (NLR) models were developed to predict the uniformity of the balloon based on orthogonal test results. A feed-forward neural network based on backpropagation (BP) was made up of 4 input neurons, 11 hidden neurons, and one output neuron, an objective function of the NLR model was developed using second-order polynomial, and the BFGS method was used to solve the function. Adequacy of models was tested using hypothesis tests, and their performances were evaluated using the R2 value. Results show that both predictive models can be used for predicting the uniformity of the balloon with a higher reliability. However, the NLR model showed a slightly better performance than the ANN model.
Influence of Antistripping Additives and Rejuvenators on Healing Performance of Moisture-Damaged HMA
This study aims to evaluate the effect of different rejuvenators and antistripping agents on the healing performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). Two damage HMA series (e.g., moisture damage and aged damage) were subjected to either induction or microwave heating. A PG64-22 virgin and aged binder were used and modified with several additives. Three long-term aged binders (e.g., PAV5, PAV15, and PAV20) were conducted by pressure aging vessel (PAV) test. The moisture damage series fabricating with a new binder was further categorized into four different freeze-thaw (FT) cycles (e.g., 0FT, 1FT, 3FT, and 5FT). Also, the aged series was fabricated with three different aged binders. A total of eight damage-healing cycles were applied to all asphalt mixtures, examined by the three-point bending test. The moisture resistance of modified asphalt mixture was examined by indirect tensile strength test. Overall, asphalt mixtures modified with either antistripping additives or rejuvenators not only obtained higher moisture resistance but also gained better healing performance under moisture damage. In addition, the study showed a probable correlation between moisture damage and long-term aging in terms of healing performance, such as PAV15 and 3FT cycles and PAV20 and 5FT cycles.
Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy in Synthetic Rubber Polymers: Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer
The dielectric permittivity of synthetic rubber polymers, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), with both frequency and temperature variations, was thoroughly investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The spectrum versus frequency of DRS was analyzed with the semiempirical Havriliak–Negami formula and conductivity contribution by employing the newly developed “dispersion analyzer” analysis program. The main dielectric relaxations called the α- and β-processes, associated with the cooperative motion of chains in polymers, were discovered in the low-temperature region. In the high-temperature region, we found Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars (MWS) relaxation associated with polymer interfacing and normal-mode (α’) relaxation responsible for end-to-end dipole vector motion. The activation energies of schematic molecular chains responsible for the relaxation processes were obtained with the information about its motional mode. The glass transition temperature and dipole moment for the side group were also determined and compared with those from previous studies. In the EPDM specimen, the peaks of α- and β-relaxation merged at high temperature and were separated with decreasing temperature. The first observations of both merging and splitting were consistent with the results on the temperature dependency of the relaxation strength. Both contour mapping and three-dimensional plots for the two rubbers provide visual information for the distribution and mapping of relaxation.
Behaviour of TiC Particles on the Co50-Based Coatings by Laser Cladding: Morphological Characteristics and Growth Mechanism
H13 steel surfaces are covered by coatings of Co-based alloy with 0, 10, 20, and 30 wt. % TiC using the laser cladding (LC) method. The morphological characteristics, growth mechanism, and the mechanical properties of TiC on the microstructure of the coatings were studied. The results show that TiC in the TiC/Co50 composite coating is composed of two parts: incompletely melted TiC and in situ TiC. TiC content has a great effect on the morphology of TiC, and it exists in different shapes: original TiC, fine-particle TiC, segregated TiC, petal-shaped TiC, and branch-shaped TiC. Additionally, the morphology of TiC in different areas of the coating is different, while TiC size gradually increases from bonding zone to surface. In the 10% TiC+Co50 coating, TiC mainly appears as undermelted, fine particles, precipitates, and having shapes of polygons and petals. From the bottom of this coating, the number of petal-shaped TiC has increased, and the particle size is also enlarged. In the 20% TiC+Co50 coating, the TiC in the coating mainly presents as undermelted, fine particles, and dendritic morphology. From the bottom of this coating to the surface, the particle size of the undermelted TiC shows a clear gradient change. Finally, the 30% TiC+Co50 coating does not have in situ TiC, and there is no obvious gradient change in the particle size of undermelted TiC. After coating by the LD method, the surface hardness is strongly enhanced. The average hardness of Co50 alloy, Co+10% TiC, and Co+20% TiC composite coatings is 499 HV0.2, 552 HV0.2, 590 HV0.2, and 824 HV0.2, respectively. These values are 2.4–4.0 times harder than that of the H13 substrate. The wear resistance of Co50 alloy, Co+10% TiC, and Co+20% TiC composite coatings is greatly higher than that of H13 steel, showing excellent wear characteristics. The friction coefficient of the coatings which have TiC is very stable. Therefore, the coatings can satisfy the requirement of tool steels applications. Additionally, the wear mechanism of the coating at room temperature is mainly brittle spalling, adhesive, and ploughing. At 700°C, the wear mechanism is mainly oxidation and fatigue.
A Novel Stick-Slip Type Rotary Piezoelectric Actuator
A novel stick-slip rotary piezoelectric actuator is designed for optical use. The actuator is proposed, fabricated, and tested with the aim of realizing both fine resolution and a long stroke. The dynamic model of the actuator is established, and simulations are performed to discover how the input driving voltage affects the stick-slip motion of the actuator. An experimental system is built to evaluate the performance of the actuator at different frequencies, voltages, and numbers of driving piezoelectric stacks. Experimental results show that the minimal output stepping angle is 3.5 μrad (0.2 millidegrees) under a sawtooth waveform having a voltage of 13 V and frequency of 3000 Hz and that the velocity reaches 0.44 rad/s (25°/s) under a sawtooth waveform having a voltage of 93 V and frequency of 3000 Hz, while the stroke is infinite. The proposed actuator provides stable and accurate rotary motion and realizes a high velocity.