Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Residual Stress (RS) Field after Multipass Ultrasonic Surface RollingRead the full article
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering publishes research in all areas of materials science and engineering, including the synthesis and properties of materials, and their applications in engineering applications.
Chief Editor, Amit Bandyopadhyay, is based at Washington State University and is interested in the fields of additive manufacturing or 3D printing of advanced materials. His current research is focused on metal additive manufacturing, biomedical devices and multi‑materials structures.
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Green-Synthesized Sm3+-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles for Multifunctional Applications
The present study focuses on the green-mediated synthesis of pristine and Sm3+-doped ZnO nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini fruit extract. The prepared material was characterized by various characterization techniques. Photocatalytic degradation of a fast orange red (FOR) dye under UV light resulted in 88% degradation, with a minimal decrease (87.90%) observed even after five successive runs, indicating the stability and effectiveness of the catalyst. The enhancement in degradation efficiency is attributed to the incorporation of Sm3+ ions into the ZnO lattice. Utilizing the optimized Sm3+ (5 mol%)-doped ZnO nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were performed on the prepared electrode, demonstrating the excellent CV properties; this enhancement is attributed to the modification of ZnO’s redox chemistry and the alteration of charge transfer kinetics at the electrode-electrolyte interface due to the addition of Sm3+ into the ZnO structure. The antibacterial activity was performed against two pathogenic strains, i.e., Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus. The obtained results suggest that the prepared material holds great promise for catalytic, energy storage, antibacterial, and other multifunctional applications.
Crack Propagation Phenomenon in Gangue Concrete Using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method
In order to study the mode I crack propagation mechanism of coal gangue concrete with different contents, the digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to carry out the three-point bending fracture tests on coal gangue concrete with different contents. The results show that the process of the mode I crack propagation of coal gangue concrete with different contents can be divided into three stages as follows: the elastic stage before crack initiation, extended viscoelastic stage, and extended fracture stage. The amount of coal gangue has a significant impact on the crack propagation path. The more the amount of coal gangue, the more the crack penetrates through the coal gangue coarse aggregate, the smaller the bending degree of the failure path, and the faster the crack propagation to the penetration speed. The crack initiation load, ultimate load, external force work, gravity work, and fracture energy all decrease with the increase of the coal gangue content. The data obtained by the DIC method and displacement extensometer are in good agreement, which proves that the DIC method is feasible. Based on the DIC method, before reaching the horizontal displacement on both sides of the crack tip, the horizontal displacement of the horizontal pixel is very small and there is a jump increase after the ultimate load. There are obvious inflection points on the left and right, and the horizontal displacement remains unchanged after the inflection point. After the horizontal displacement field of crack propagation reaches the limit load, there is an obvious limit; the limit gradually extends upward, and the corresponding crack tip strain field is also gradually enhanced. The more the coal gangue is added, the smaller the corresponding horizontal displacement and strain field is at the same limit load moment. The shape of the crack generation area of coal gangue concrete takes the crack tip as the axis of symmetry and is “gourd shaped.” The more the content of the crack, the larger the crack generation area.
Thermal and Morphological Assessment of the Penta-Layered, Hybrid U-Polyester Composite Reinforced with Glass Fibers and Polypropylene
The interaction between the fibers and matrix in a fiber-reinforced polymer composite material is important in figuring out its properties. The incorporation of fibers with polymers can result in composites with enhanced strength and stiffness. This study aims to investigate the thermal and morphological characteristics of hybrid u-polyester composites reinforced with glass fibers and polypropylene. The fabrication of composite specimens was conducted through a straightforward cold press method. The compositions of the composites were held constant, except for the orientation of the glass fibers and polypropylene. In this study, the TG/DTG technique was used to analyze the thermal characteristics of the composites. In addition, transverse thermal conductivity was measured using the ASTM E1530 method. The test results showed that the composite reinforced with glass fibers exhibited the lowest weight loss and minimal thermal conductivity among all the samples, followed by the hybrid composite. Based on the TGA curves of the samples, the matrix experienced a weight loss of 9.7% at a temperature of 300°C, which reduced to 2.6% and 2.1% for hybrid composites and glass fiber-reinforced composites, respectively. DTG curves for composites demonstrate that the hybrid and fiber-reinforced composites degraded at rates of 0.64 mg/min and 0.36 mg/min, respectively, at 392.3°C and 395.7°C. Moreover, transverse thermal conductivity of the composite which consists of five-glass-fibered layers shows a minimal thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/m·K. The morphological properties were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The findings from SEM and FTIR showed that a higher proportion of glass fibers led to a more oriented composite structure, demonstrating enhanced crosslinking between fibers and polyester. Therefore, the insights of this study can be used to improve the performance of glass fibers and polypropylene hybrid-laminated composites intended for high-temperature applications.
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Copper Matrix Composites Enhanced with TiO2 and MoS2 Hybrids
The paper deals with the properties of copper-based composites. Copper is contributing to the field of automobiles and aerospace industries. The tribological properties of copper are not found to be satisfactory, which may be attributed to the support of producing copper matrix composites with extensive investigations into their properties. Coper-based hybrid composites were fabricated by reinforcing titanium dioxide (TiO2) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) to enhance the wear and mechanical properties of copper composites. Three specimens were prepared by powder metallurgy process with the designations of Cu + 5wt.%TiO2, Cu + 5wt.%TiO2 + 2wt.% MoS2, and Cu + 5wt.% TiO2 + 4wt.% MoS2. The metallurgical analysis was done on the specimens using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which confirms the presence and distribution of Cu, TiO2, and MoS2 particles in the specimens. The wear rate was studied on the specimens concerning the sliding velocity, load, and MoS2 content. The statistical analysis and Taguchi analysis highlight the influencing parameters on the wear rate of the material. Linear regression equations were developed to predict the wear rate using DoE. Through this analysis, the sliding velocity of 3 m/s, a load of 30 N, and a 4% addition of MoS2 were identified as the optimum parameters for the minimal wear rate. The wear mechanism was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy techniques to reveal the adhesion, delamination, and oxidation.
Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Stabilities of Tamarind Seed- and Peanut Shell Powder-Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composite
Efficient exploitation of agricultural waste results in a more sustainable and ecofriendly environment since it lessens the burden of their disposal, which has become increasingly important in recent times. Due to their high mechanical strength and high thermal stability, these biodegradable low-value agrosolid wastes have the potential to successfully replace synthetic fibers and fillers in polymer matrices in the form of reinforcements. This work deals with the addition of low-cost and renewable hybrid natural fillers, tamarind seed filler (TMS), and peanut shell powder (PNS) as particulate reinforcements to the vinyl ester (VE) resin. Traditional compression molding creates TMS/PNS-VE hybrid composites with filler loadings ranging from 5% to 30%. After the composites were fabricated, they were tested for strength properties and heat deflection temperature. A detailed experimental analysis of the mechanical properties was conducted. According to the findings, 20 wt.% hybrid filler loading to the vinyl ester polymer exhibited peak tensile, flexural, and impact strengths of 40.3 MPa, 142 MPa, and 16 kJ/m2, respectively, which is 1.52, 1.69, and 1.29 times the properties of the virgin polymer. However, the peak elongation at break 3.9% was obtained at 30 wt.%. Similarly, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) test of TMS/PNS-VE composites showed a maximum rise of 50.91% at 25 wt.% of filler loading. This is 1.51 times greater than the heat deflection temperature of the pure vinyl ester resin. The findings made it quite clear that adding 20 wt.% biosolid waste hybrid particulate fillers made out of tamarind seed and peanut shell to vinyl ester is the optimum weight, which improves the mechanical and thermal properties of the TMS/PNS-VE composite, making it suitable for making cost-effective materials for lightweight applications. This study also utilizes scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the microstructural characteristics of the composites, correlating these features with their mechanical performance.
Design Analysis and Optimization of Coil Spring for Three-Wheeler Vehicles Using Composite Materials
The quest for lightweight, efficient, and corrosion-resistant coil springs for vehicle suspension systems has led to the exploration of alternative materials beyond traditional steel. This study delves into the potential of composite materials, particularly carbon/epoxy and carbon/carbon nanotube/epoxy, as replacements for conventional steel coil springs in light vehicles. Through a comprehensive analysis of mechanical properties under static and dynamic loading conditions, the study demonstrates the superior performance of composite springs compared to their steel counterparts. After optimization, the deflection of the carbon/carbon nanotube/epoxy and carbon/epoxy springs decreased to 15.003 mm and 18.703 mm, respectively, and the maximum shear stress decreased by 64.63% and 62.2%, respectively. Likewise, strain energies increased to 2.3644 and 3.5616, respectively. The springs were also studied under dynamic conditions, and the result showed these springs have the ability to perform in dynamic conditions. The carbon/carbon nanotube/epoxy composite emerged as the frontrunner, exhibiting remarkable improvements in shear stress, fatigue life, strain energy, and deformation properties. The study highlights the ability of carbon/carbon nanotube/epoxy composite springs to significantly reduce weight, enhance efficiency, and extend fatigue life, making them a promising alternative for next-generation vehicle suspension systems.