Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 245473, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/245473
Research Article

The Effect of Variation of Molarity of Alkali Activator and Fine Aggregate Content on the Compressive Strength of the Fly Ash: Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 24 February 2014; Revised 11 June 2014; Accepted 13 June 2014; Published 20 July 2014

Academic Editor: Dachamir Hotza

Copyright © 2014 Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. U. J. Alengaram, B. A. A. Muhit, and M. Z. B. Jumaat, “Utilization of oil palm kernel shell as lightweight aggregate in concrete—a review,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 38, pp. 161–172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Rukzon and P. Chindaprasirt, “Use of disposed waste ash from landfills to replace Portland cement,” Waste Management & Research, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 588–594, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Safiuddin, U. J. Alengaram, M. A. Salam, M. Z. Jumaat, F. F. Jaafar, and H. B. Saad, “Properties of high-workability concrete with recycled concrete aggregate,” Materials Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 248–255, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Safiuddin, M. A. Salam, and M. Z. Jumaat, “Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in concrete: a review,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 234–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Appukutty and R. Murugesan, “Substitution of quarry dust to sand for mortar in brick masonry works,” International Journal on Design and Manufacturing Technologies, vol. 3, pp. 59–63, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Westerholm, B. Lagerblad, J. Silfwerbrand, and E. Forssberg, “Influence of fine aggregate characteristics on the rheological properties of mortars,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 274–282, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. M. Shilstone, “The aggregate: the most important value-adding component in concrete,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium, International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR), Austin, Tex, USA, 1999.
  8. P. N. Quiroga and D. W. Fowler, The Effects of Aggregates Characteristics on the Performance of Portland Cement Concrete, International Centre for Aggregates Research (ICAR), The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex, USA, 2004.
  9. B. P. Hudson, “Modification to the fine aggregate angularity test,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium, International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR), Austin, Tex, USA, 1999.
  10. M. L. Marceau, M. A. Nisbet, and M. G. VanGeem, “Life cycle inventory of Portland cement concrete,” 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois 60077-1083: Portland Cement Association, 2007.
  11. J. Davidovits, Geopolymer Chemistry & Application, Institute Géopolymèr, Saint-Quentin, France, 3rd edition, 2008.
  12. S. Thokchom, P. Ghosh, and S. Ghosh, “Durability of fly ash geopolymer mortars in nitric ACID—effect of alkali (Na2O) content,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 393–399, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. S. M. A. Awal and M. W. Hussin, “The effectiveness of palm oil fuel ash in preventing expansion due to alkali-silica reaction,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 367–372, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. W. Hussin and A. S. M. A. Awal, “Influence of palm oil fuel ash on strength and durability of concrete,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, pp. 291–298, E & FN Spon, London, UK, 1996.
  15. J. Žvironaitė, I. Pundienė, S. Gaidučis, and V. Kizinievič, “Effect of different pozzolana on hardening process and properties of hydraulic binder based on natural anhydrite,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, vol. 18, pp. 530–536, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Chandra and L. Berntsson, Light Weight Aggregate Concrete, Noyels Publications, Norwich, NY, USA, 2002.
  17. P. Shafigh, U. J. Alengaram, H. B. Mahmud, and M. Z. Jumaat, “Engineering properties of oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing fly ash,” Materials & Design, vol. 49, pp. 613–621, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. P. Yap, U. J. Alengaram, and M. Z. Jumaat, “Enhancement of mechanical properties in polypropylene- and nylon-fibre reinforced oil palm shell concrete,” Materials and Design, vol. 49, pp. 1034–1041, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Johnson Alengaram, B. A. Al Muhit, M. Z. bin Jumaat, and M. L. Y. Jing, “A comparison of the thermal conductivity of oil palm shell foamed concrete with conventional materials,” Materials and Design, vol. 51, pp. 522–529, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Weng, W. Lin, and A. Cheng, “Effect of metakaolin on strength and efflorescence quantity of cement-based composites,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 606524, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Safiuddin, M. H. M. Isa, and M. Z. Jumaat, “Fresh properties of self-consolidating concrete incorporating palm oil fuel ash as a supplementary cementing material,” Chiang Mai Journal of Science, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 389–404, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. K. Lim, C. S. Tan, O. Y. Lim, and Y. L. Lee, “Fresh and hardened properties of lightweight foamed concrete with palm oil fuel ash as filler,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 46, pp. 39–47, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. M. Altwair, M. A. Megat Johari, and S. F. Saiyid Hashim, “Flexural performance of green engineered cementitious composites containing high volume of palm oil fuel ash,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 37, pp. 518–525, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Kroehong, T. Sinsiri, and C. Jaturapitakkul, “Effect of palm oil fuel ash fineness on packing effect and pozzolanic reaction of blended cement paste,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 361–369, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. M. Tamim, A. Dhar, and M. S. Hossain, “Fly ash in Bangladesh−an overview,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 4, pp. 809–812, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  26. N. K. Lee and H. K. Lee, “Setting and mechanical properties of alkali-activated fly ash/slag concrete manufactured at room temperature,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 47, pp. 1201–1209, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Nagiah and R. Azmi, “A review of smallholder oil palm production: challenges and opportunities for enhancing sustainability—a Malaysian perspective,” Journal of Oil Palm & the Environment, vol. 3, pp. 114–120, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. N. M. Altwair, M. A. M. Johari, and S. F. S. Hashim, “Influence of treated palm oil fuel ash on compressive properties and chloride resistance of engineered cementitious composites,” Materials and Structures, pp. 1–16, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Hawa, D. Tonnayopas, and W. Prachasaree, “Performance evaluation and microstructure characterization of Metakaolin-based geopolymer containing Oil Palm Ash,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 857586, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. E. Wallah and B. V. Rangan, “Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete: long-term properties,” Research Report GC 2, Engineering Faculty, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. Hardjito, S. E. Wallah, D. M. J. Sumajouw, and B. V. Rangan, “On the development of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete,” Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID 101-M52, pp. 77–84, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. H. Kupaei, U. J. Alengaram, M. Z. B. Jumaat, and H. Nikraz, “Mix design for fly ash based oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 43, pp. 490–496, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. British Standard BS 882, Specification for Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete, British Standards Institute, 1992.
  34. ASTM Standard C29/C29M-09, Standard Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2009.
  35. ASTM C128-12, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA.
  36. ASTM International, “Standard test method for flow of hydraulic cement mortar,” ASTM C1437-13, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA.
  37. ASTM International C 109/C 109M, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in or [50-mm] Cube Specimens), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 1999.
  38. N. Lloyd and V. Rangan, “Geopolymer concrete-sustainable cementless concrete,” ACI Special Publication, vol. 261, pp. 33–54, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  39. W. W. S. Fung, A. K. H. Kwan, and H. H. C. Wong, “Wet packing of crushed rock fine aggregate,” Materials and Structures, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 631–643, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. C. Powers, The Properties of Fresh Concrete, Road Research Laboratory, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 1969.
  41. A. Autef, E. Joussein, G. Gasgnier, and S. Rossignol, “Role of the silica source on the geopolymerization rate: a thermal analysis study,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 366, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Chindaprasirt, C. Jaturapitakkul, and T. Sinsiri, “Effect of fly ash fineness on microstructure of blended cement paste,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1534–1541, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. S. Ashtiani, A. N. Scott, and R. P. Dhakal, “Mechanical and fresh properties of high-strength self-compacting concrete containing class C fly ash,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 47, pp. 1217–1224, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Alexander and S. Mindess, Aggregates in Concrete, Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, UK, 2005.
  45. S. Pangdaeng, T. Phoo-Ngernkham, V. Sata, and P. Chindaprasirt, “Influence of curing conditions on properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer containing Portland cement as additive,” Materials & Design, vol. 53, pp. 269–274, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Somna, C. Jaturapitakkul, P. Kajitvichyanukul, and P. Chindaprasirt, “NaOH-activated ground fly ash geopolymer cured at ambient temperature,” Fuel, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2118–2124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. A. Tasong, J. C. Cripps, and C. J. Lynsdale, “Aggregate-cement chemical interactions,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1037–1048, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Isabella, G. C. Lukey, H. Xu, and J. S. J. V. Deventer, “The effect of aggregate particle size on formation of geopolymeric gel,” in Advanced Materials for Construction of Bridges, Buildings and Other Structures III, V. Mistry, A. Azizinamini, and J. M. Hooks, Eds., ECI Digital Archives, Davos, Switzerland, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  49. W. K. W. Lee and J. S. J. van Deventer, “Chemical interactions between siliceous aggregates and low-Ca alkali-activated cements,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 844–855, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. Puertas, S. Martínez-Ramírez, S. Alonso, and T. Vázquez, “Alkali-activated fly ash/slag cements. Strength behaviour and hydration products,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1625–1632, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Chindaprasirt, C. Jaturapitakkul, W. Chalee, and U. Rattanasak, “Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers,” Waste Management, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 539–543, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Álvarez-Ayuso, X. Querol, F. Plana et al., “Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 154, no. 1–3, pp. 175–183, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. X. Guo, H. Shi, and W. A. Dick, “Compressive strength and microstructural characteristics of class C fly ash geopolymer,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 142–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Kovalchuk, A. Fernández-Jiménez, and A. Palomo, “Alkali-activated fly ash: effect of thermal curing conditions on mechanical and microstructural development—part II,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 315–322, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Hardjito, C. C. Cheak, and C. H. L. Ing, “Strength and setting times of low calcium fly ash-based geopolymer mortar,” Modern Applied Science, vol. 2, pp. 3–11, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  56. F. A. Memon, M. F. Nuruddin, S. Khan, N. Shafiq, and T. Ayub, “Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. P. Hudson, “Concrete workability with high fines content sands,” Quarry, vol. 7, pp. 22–25, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  58. I. Dumitru, T. Zdrilic, and G. Smorchevsky, “The use of manufactured quarry fines in concrete,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium on Aggregates-Concrete, Bases and Fines, pp. C1-5-1–C1-5-12, International Centre for Aggregates Research (ICAR), Austin, Tex, USA, 1999.
  59. M. Kaplan, The Fle xural and Compressive Strength of Concrete as Affected by the Properties of Coarse Aggregates, National Building Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 1960.
  60. J.E. Galloway, “Grading, Shape and Surface Properties,” ASTM International, 1994.
  61. S. N. Raman, T. Ngo, P. Mendis, and H. B. Mahmud, “High-strength rice husk ash concrete incorporating quarry dust as a partial substitute for sand,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 3123–3130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus