Research Article

Evaluation of the Influence Caused by Tunnel Construction on Groundwater Environment: A Case Study of Tongluoshan Tunnel, China

Table 1

Indicator system for assessment of the negative effects caused by tunnel excavation on groundwater environment [16].

Objective layerRule layerIndicator layerDefinition and explanation assessment of the negative effects caused by tunnel excavation on groundwater environment [B1] physical geography [C11] average annual rainfall (mm)Average value of annual precipitation in the previous five to ten years
[C12] average annual evaporation (mm)Average value of annual evaporation in the previous five to ten years
[C13] area of catchment zone (km2)Area of the catchment zone that collects water contributing to water inrush into tunnel
[C14] coefficient of rainfall infiltrationThe proportion of atmospheric precipitation contributing to groundwater recharge
[C15] spatial relationship between the tunnel and geomorphologySpatial relationships between tunnel and geomorphology on cross and longitudinal section
[C16] capacities of reservoirs and lakes on the ground (m3)Capacities of reservoirs and lakes, located on the ground, which may become water sources of tunnel inflow
[C17] flow of surface rivers (m3/s)Flow of surface rivers which may supply tunnel with water
[B2] geology and hydrogeology [C21] carbonate rocks exposure ratio (%)Areal ratio of outcropping carbonate rocks to the catchment zone contributing to water inflow in the plane
[C22] water yield property of aquifersWater yield property of aquifers that may provide tunnel with water
[C23] water pressure on the tunnel (Mpa)Hydrostatic pressure on tunnel
[C24] development of foldsCharacteristics and scale of folds, as well as the development of water passages formed during folds formation
[C25] development of fracture zonesDevelopment of fracture zones which may become water channels primarily including faults-fracture zone, joints concentrated zone, and contact zone of different lithology
[C26] formation lithologyStrata lithologic and its proportion
[C27] location of tunnel in horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic zoning of groundwaterLocation of tunnel in horizontal hydrodynamic zone of groundwater including recharge zone, runoff zone and discharge zone, and in vertical hydrodynamic zone of groundwater, consisting of epikarst zone, aeration zone, seasonal fluctuation zone, shallow saturation zone, stressful saturation zone and deep circulation zone
[B3] tunnel engineers [C31] length of tunnel (km)Length along the tunnel axis
[C32] area of disturbed range (m2)Area of the zone that may be disturbed by tunnel excavation
[C33] construction methodMethods used to excavate tunnel, mainly including drilling and blasting method, New Austrian Tunneling Method, and tunnel boring machine method
[C34] burial depth of tunnel (m)Vertical distance from ceiling of the tunnel to ground surface
[C35] measures for prevention of groundwater flowing into tunnelIdeas and technologies adopted to prevent and treat groundwater flowing into tunnel