Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 301837, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/301837
Research Article

Enhanced Fatigue Strength of Commercially Pure Ti Processed by Rotary Swaging

1Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
2Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Received 7 October 2014; Revised 19 January 2015; Accepted 20 January 2015

Academic Editor: Luigi Nicolais

Copyright © 2015 Hasan ALkhazraji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Sakai, M. Takeda, K. Shiozawa et al., “Experimental reconfirmation of characteristic S-N property for high carbon chromium bearing steel in wide life region in rotating bending,” Journal of the Society of Materials Science Japan, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 779–785, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Goto, T. Yamamoto, H. Nisitani, T. Sakai, and N. Kawagoishi, “Effect of removing surface hardened layer on the fatigue strength of bearing steel SUJ2 ground specimen in the long life field,” Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 786–792, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Murakami, T. Nomoto, and T. Ueda, “On the mechanism of fatigue failure in the superlong life regime (N > 107 cycles). Part I: influence of hydrogen trapped by inclusions,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 893–902, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Murakami, T. Nomoto, and T. Ueda, “On the mechanism of fatigue failure in the superlong life regime (N>107 cycles). Part I: influence of hydrogen trapped by inclusions,” Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 893–902, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Murakami, N. N. Yokoyama, and J. Nagata, “Mechanism of fatigue failure in ultralong life regime,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 8-9, pp. 735–746, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Shiozawa and L. Lu, “Very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of shot-peened high-carbon-chromium bearing steel,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 8-9, pp. 813–822, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Ochi, T. Matsumura, K. Masaki, and S. Yoshida, “High-cycle rotating bending fatigue property in very long-life regime of high-strength steels,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 8-9, pp. 823–830, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Sakai, Y. Sato, and N. Oguma, “Characteristics S-N properties of high-carbon-chromium-bearing steel under axial loading in long-life fatigue,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 25, no. 8-9, pp. 765–773, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Akiniwa, K. Tanaka, and H. Kimura, “Microstructural effects on crack closure and propagation thresholds of small fatigue cracks,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 817–830, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. R. Agnew, A. Y. Vinogradov, S. Hashimoto, and J. R. Weertman, “Overview of fatigue performance of Cu processed by severe plastic deformation,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1038–1044, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Mughrabi and H. W. Höppel, “Cyclic deformation and fatigue properties of ultrafine grain size materials: current status and some criteria for improvement of the fatigue resistance,” in Symposium B—Structure and Mechanical Properties of Nanophase Materials-Theory & Computer Simulations vs. Experiment, vol. B2.1.1 of MRS Proceedings, p. 634, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. H. W. Höppel, M. Brunnbauer, H. Mughrabi, R. Z. Valiev, and A. P. Zhilyaev, “Cyclic deformation behaviour of ultrafine grain size copper produced by equal channel angular extrusion,” in Proceedings of the Materials Week, Frankfurt, Germany, September 2000, http://www.materialsweek.org/proceedings.
  13. H. Mughrabi, H. W. Höppel, and M. Kautz, “Fatigue and microstructure of ultrafine-grained metals produced by severe plastic deformation,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 807–812, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Thiele, C. Holste, and R. Klemm, “Influence of size effect on microstructural changes in cyclically deformed polycrystalline nickel,” Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 730–736, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Thiele, J. Bretschneider, C. Buque, N. Schell, A. Schwab, and C. Holste, “Internal strains in single grains of fatigued polycrystalline nickel,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 404–407, pp. 823–828, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. W. Höppel, M. Kautz, C. Xu et al., “An overview: fatigue behaviour of ultrafine-grained metals and alloys,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1001–1010, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. W. Höppel and R. Z. Valiev, “On the possibilities to enhance the fatigue properties of ultrafine-grained metals,” Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 641–648, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Vinogradov and S. R. Agnew, “Nanocrystalline materials: fatigue,” in Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, pp. 2269–2288, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  19. F. Ebrahimi, G. R. Bourne, M. S. Kelly, and T. E. Matthews, “Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline nickel produced by electrodeposition,” Nanostructured Materials, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343–350, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. D. Hughes, S. D. Smith, C. S. Pande, H. R. Johnson, and R. W. Armstrong, “Hall-petch strengthening for the microhardness of twelve nanometer grain diameter electrodeposited nickel,” Scripta Metallurgica, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 93–97, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. S. C. Jang and C. C. Koch, “The Hall-Petch relationship in nanocrystalline iron produced by ball milling,” Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1599–1604, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Dalla Torre, H. Van Swygenhoven, and M. Victoria, “Nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni: microstructure and tensile properties,” Acta Materialia, vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 3957–3970, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. S. Soliman, E. A. El-Danaf, and A. A. Almajid, “Enhancement of static and fatigue strength of 1050 Al processed by equal-channel angular pressing using two routes,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 532, pp. 120–129, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Lukáš, L. Kunz, L. Navrátilová, and O. Bokůvka, “Fatigue damage of ultrafine-grain copper in very-high cycle fatigue region,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 528, no. 22-23, pp. 7036–7040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill Series in Materials Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 3rd edition, 1961.
  26. J. D. Eshelby, F. C. Frank, and F. R. Nabarro, “The equilibrium of linear arrays of dislocations,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 42, pp. 351–364, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  27. R. W. Armstrong, “60 years of hall-petch: past to present nano-scale connections,” Materials Transactions, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. V. Mises, “Mechanik der plastischen Formänderung von Kristallen,” Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 161–185, 1928. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. H. Neuber, Theory of Notch Stresses, Navy Department, David Taylor Model Basin, Washington, DC, USA, 1945.
  30. M. Wollmann, M. Mhaede, J. Atoura, and L. Wagner, “Influence of mechanical surface treatments on notched fatigue of various titanium alloys,” in Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Titanium (Ti '11), vol. 2, pp. 972–975, June 2011. View at Scopus
  31. Torrington-Machinery, 2012, http://www.torrington-machinery.com/images/pic_rotary_swaging1.gif.
  32. Shahzad, Influence of extrusion parameters on microstructure development and mechanical properties in wrought magnesium alloys AZ80 and ZK60, Dr.-Ing [Ph.D. thesis], TU Clausthal, 2007.
  33. E. A. El-Danaf, “Texture evolution and fraction of favorably oriented fibers in commercially pure aluminum processed to 16 ECAP passes,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 492, no. 1-2, pp. 141–152, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. A. El-Danaf, M. M. El-Rayes, and M. S. Soliman, “Friction stir processing: an effective technique to refine grain structure and enhance ductility,” Materials and Design, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 1231–1236, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. El-Danaf, M. Kawasaki, M. El-Rayes, M. Baig, J. A. Mohammed, and T. G. Langdon, “Mechanical properties and microstructure evolution in an aluminum 6082 alloy processed by high-pressure torsion,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 49, no. 19, pp. 6597–6607, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. A. Abdulstaar, E. A. El-Danaf, N. S. Waluyo, and L. Wagner, “Severe plastic deformation of commercial purity aluminum by rotary swaging: microstructure evolution and mechanical properties,” Materials Science & Engineering A, vol. 565, pp. 351–358, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. ALkhazraji, E. El-Danaf, M. Wollmann, and L. Wagner, “Microstructure, mechanical and fatigue strength of Ti54 M processed by rotary swaging,” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. In press.
  38. H. ALkhazraji, Z. Mohammed, Z. Zhong et al., “Estimation of dislocation density in cold-rolled commercially pure titanium by using synchrotron diffraction,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1557–1564, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Lukáš, L. Kunz, and M. Svoboda, “Fatigue notch sensitivity of ultrafine-grained copper,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 391, no. 1-2, pp. 337–341, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. W.-J. Kim, C.-Y. Hyun, and H.-K. Kim, “Fatigue strength of ultrafine-grained pure Ti after severe plastic deformation,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1745–1750, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. I. P. Semenova, G. K. Salimgareeva, V. V. Latysh, T. Lowe, and R. Z. Valiev, “Enhanced fatigue strength of commercially pure Ti processed by severe plastic deformation,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 503, no. 1-2, pp. 92–95, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. W. Höppel, Z. M. Zhou, H. Mughrabi, and R. Z. Valiev, “Microstructural study of the parameters governing coarsening and cyclic softening in fatigued ultrafine-grained copper,” Philosophical Magazine A: Physics of Condensed Matter, Structure, Defects and Mechanical Properties, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1781–1794, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. W. Höppel, H. Mughrabi, and A. Vinogradov, “Fatigue properties of bulk nanostructured materials,” in Bulk Nanostructured Materials, M. Zehetbauer and Y. T. Zhu, Eds., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Vinogradov and S. Agnew, “Nanocrystalline materials: fatigue,” in Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, J. A. Schwarz, C. Contescu, and K. Putyera, Eds., pp. 2269–2288, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  45. Y. Estrin and A. Vinogradov, “Fatigue behaviour of light alloys with ultrafine grain structure produced by severe plastic deformation: an overview,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 898–907, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. A. S. Mohammed, E. A. El-Danaf, and A. A. Radwan, “A criterion for shear banding localization in polycrystalline FCC metals and alloys and critical working conditions for different microstructural variables,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 186, no. 1–3, pp. 14–21, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. S. Altan, Severe Plastic Deformation: Toward Bulk Production of Nanostructured Materials, Nova, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  48. A. K. Head, “The positions of dislocations in arrays,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 4, no. 39, pp. 295–302, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. E. O. Hall, “The deformation and ageing of mild steel: III. Discussion of results,” Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section B, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 747–753, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. N. J. Petch, “The cleavage strength of polycrystals,” Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, vol. 174, pp. 25–28, 1953. View at Google Scholar