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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 682940, 10 pages
Research Article

A Thermo-Hygro-Coupled Model for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Structures

1Civil Engineering Program, School of Engineering, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, Thailand
2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla 90112, Thailand
3Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA

Received 12 April 2015; Revised 26 June 2015; Accepted 29 June 2015

Academic Editor: Rui Wang

Copyright © 2015 Nattapong Damrongwiriyanupap et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Corrosion damage due to chloride attack is one of the most concerning issues for long term durability of reinforced concrete structures. By developing the reliable mathematical model of chloride penetration into concrete structures, it can help structural engineers and management agencies with predicting the service life of reinforced concrete structures in order to effectively schedule the maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation program. This paper presents a theoretical and computational model for chloride diffusion in concrete structures. The governing equations are taking into account the coupled transport process of chloride ions, moisture, and temperature. This represents the actual condition of concrete structures which are always found in nonsaturated and nonisothermal conditions. The fully coupled effects among chloride, moisture, and heat diffusion are considered and included in the model. The coupling parameters evaluated based on the available material models and test data are proposed and explicitly incorporated in the governing equations. The numerical analysis of coupled transport equations is performed using the finite element method. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results against the available experimental data and a good agreement is observed.