Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1430892, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1430892
Research Article

Feasibility of Reprocessing Natural Fiber Filled Poly(lactic acid) Composites: An In-Depth Investigation

Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Dilpreet S. Bajwa; ude.usdn@awjab.teerplid

Received 30 March 2017; Revised 22 May 2017; Accepted 29 May 2017; Published 27 July 2017

Academic Editor: Luigi Nicolais

Copyright © 2017 Sujal Bhattacharjee and Dilpreet S. Bajwa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Le Duigou, I. Pillin, A. Bourmaud, P. Davies, and C. Baley, “Effect of recycling on mechanical behaviour of biocompostable flax/poly(l-lactide) composites,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1471–1478, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Pilla, S. Gong, E. O'Neill, L. Yang, and R. M. Rowell, “Polylactide-recycled wood fiber composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Salehiyan, A. A. Yussuf, N. F. Hanani, A. Hassan, and A. Akbari, “Polylactic acid/polycaprolactone nanocomposite: Influence of montmorillonite and impact modifier on mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties,” Journal of Elastomers and Plastics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 69–87, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Petinakis, L. Yu, G. Edward, K. Dean, H. Liu, and A. D. Scully, “Effect of matrix-particle interfacial adhesion on the mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/wood-flour micro-composites,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 83–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Qiang, D. Yu, and H. Gao, “Wood flour/polylactide biocomposites toughened with polyhydroxyalkanoates,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 1831–1839, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Li, and J. Duan, “Thermal properties and crystallization behaviors of polylactide/redwood flour or bamboo fiber composites,” Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 161–168, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. H. Anuar, A. Zuraida, J. G. Kovacs, and T. Tabi, “Improvement of mechanical properties of injection-molded polylactic acid-kenaf fiber biocomposite,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 153–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Salmah, S. C. Koay, and O. Hakimah, “Surface modification of coconut shell powder filled polylactic acid biocomposites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 809–819, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. S. Chun, S. Husseinsyah, and H. Osman, “Mechanical and thermal properties of coconut shell powder filled polylactic acid biocomposites: effects of the filler content and silane coupling agent,” Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 19, no. 5, article 9859, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K.-W. Kim, B.-H. Lee, H.-J. Kim, K. Sriroth, and J. R. Dorgan, “Thermal and mechanical properties of cassava and pineapple flours-filled PLA bio-composites,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 1131–1139, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Hamad, M. Kaseem, H. W. Yang, F. Deri, and Y. G. Ko, “Properties and medical applications of polylactic acid: a review,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 435–455, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Faludi, G. Dora, K. Renner, J. Móczó, and B. Pukánszky, “Biocomposite from polylactic acid and lignocellulosic fibers: structure-property correlations,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 1767–1775, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Morreale, R. Scaffaro, A. Maio, and F. P. La Mantia, “Effect of adding wood flour to the physical properties of a biodegradable polymer,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 503–513, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Bledzki, A. Jaszkiewicz, and D. Scherzer, “Mechanical properties of PLA composites with man-made cellulose and abaca fibres,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 404–412, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. S. Huda, L. T. Drzal, M. Misra, A. K. Mohanty, K. Williams, and D. F. Mielewski, “A study on biocomposites from recycled newspaper fiber and poly(lactic acid),” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 5593–5601, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Hrabalova, A. Gregorova, R. Wimmer, V. Sedlarik, M. Machovsky, and N. Mundigler, “Effect of wood flour loading and thermal annealing on viscoelastic properties of poly(lactic acid) composite films,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 1534–1540, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Dhar, D. Tarafder, A. Kumar, and V. Katiyar, “Thermally recyclable polylactic acid/cellulose nanocrystal films through reactive extrusion process,” Polymer (United Kingdom), vol. 87, pp. 268–282, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Nyambo, A. K. Mohanty, and M. Misra, “Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1654–1660, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. S. Huda, A. K. Mohanty, L. T. Drzal, E. Schut, and M. Misra, “"green" composites from recycled cellulose and poly(lactic acid): Physico-mechanical and morphological properties evaluation,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, no. 16, pp. 4221–4229, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. “Table of ir absorptions,” 2016, http://www.Chem.Ucla.Edu/~webspectra/irtable.html.
  21. “Infrared spectroscopy,” 2016, https://www2.Chemistry.Msu.Edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/spectrpy/infrared/infrared.htm.
  22. M. D. H. Beg and K. L. Pickering, “Reprocessing of wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Part I: Effects on physical and mechanical properties,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1091–1100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Nagarajan, K. Zhang, M. Misra, and A. K. Mohanty, “Overcoming the fundamental challenges in improving the impact strength and crystallinity of PLA biocomposites: Influence of nucleating agent and mold temperature,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 21, pp. 11203–11214, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Graupner, “Improvement of the mechanical properties of biodegradable hemp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites by the admixture of man-made cellulose fibers,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 689–702, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. Zembouai, S. Bruzaud, M. Kaci, A. Benhamida, Y.-M. Corre, and Y. Grohens, “Mechanical Recycling of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate)/Polylactide Based Blends,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 449–459, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Petchwattana, S. Covavisaruch, and J. Sanetuntikul, “Recycling of wood-plastic composites prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and wood flour,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 557–560, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. B. Adhikary, S. Pang, and M. P. Staiger, “Dimensional stability and mechanical behaviour of wood-plastic composites based on recycled and virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE),” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 807–815, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus