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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1689251, 13 pages
Research Article

Experimental Analysis and Discussion on the Damage Variable of Frozen Loess

1State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3Key Lab of Visual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Wei Ma

Received 25 October 2016; Revised 2 January 2017; Accepted 8 February 2017; Published 13 March 2017

Academic Editor: Paulo M. S. T. De Castro

Copyright © 2017 Cong Cai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The damage variable is very important to study damage evolution of material. Taking frozen loess as an example, a series of triaxial compression and triaxial loading-unloading tests are performed under five strain rates of 5.0 × 10−6–1.3 × 10−2/s at a temperature of −6°C. A damage criterion of frozen loess is defined and a damage factor is introduced to satisfy the requirements of the engineering application. The damage variable of frozen loess is investigated using the following four methods: the stiffness degradation method, the deformation increase method, the dissipated energy increase method, and the constitutive model deducing method during deformation process. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the four methods are discussed when they are used for frozen loess material. According to the discussion, the plastic strain may be the most appropriate variable to characterize the damage evolution of frozen loess during the deformation process based on the material properties and the nature of the material service.