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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3707329, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3707329
Review Article

Micromechanics of Cracked Laminates under Uniaxial Load: A Comparison between Approaches

Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencia, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de Mexico, Carretera Lago de Guadalupe Km. 3.5, Margarita Maza de Juárez, 52926 Atizapán de Zaragoza, MEX, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to U. Figueroa-López; xm.mseti@oreugifu

Received 10 February 2017; Revised 20 April 2017; Accepted 9 May 2017; Published 5 June 2017

Academic Editor: Paulo M. S. T. De Castro

Copyright © 2017 J. A. Rivera-Santana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This paper compares stiffness degradation models of cross-ply glass fiber/epoxy laminates based on four of the most commonly used approaches to micromechanical modelling: shear-lag, variational, McCartney, and synergistic damage mechanics (SDM). All of these include the process of defining laminate unit cell, from which governing differential equations and corresponding boundary conditions are stated. Afterwards, these boundary value problems (BVP) are solved in order to obtain a stress function which couples the initial and perturbation stresses, the latter being in function of crack density, thus related to material stiffness reduction. When compared against experimental results, shear-lag model presented accurate results however, additional differentiation and integration steps were required in order to obtain the final stress field. Hashin’s variational method predicts correctly the boundary conditions at crack surfaces and gives out the complete stress field. McCartney’s approach shows further improvement over the previous two models, taking into account thermal strains and stresses. Finally, SDM, which is designed for numerical experimentation, implying a more economical alternative in comparison to traditional physical experimentation, also presented very good agreement with experimental results and can be extended to arbitrary laminate stackings, going beyond the classical cross-ply.