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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 5812907, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5812907
Review Article

Deposition Methods for Microstructured and Nanostructured Coatings on Metallic Bone Implants: A Review

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Ebrahim Asadi; moc.oohay@8idasae

Received 10 October 2016; Revised 11 December 2016; Accepted 21 December 2016; Published 9 January 2017

Academic Editor: Hongchao Kou

Copyright © 2017 Bailey Moore et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A review of current deposition processes is presented as they relate to osseointegration of metallic bone implants. The objective is to present a comprehensive review of different deposition processes used to apply microstructured and nanostructured osteoconductive coatings on metallic bone implants. Implant surface topography required for optimal osseointegration is presented. Five of the most widely used osteoconductive coating deposition processes are reviewed in terms of their microstructure and nanostructure, usable thickness, and cost, all of which are summarized in tables and charts. Plasma spray techniques offer cost-effective coatings but exhibit deficiencies with regard to osseointegration such as high-density, amorphous coatings. Electrodeposition and aerosol deposition techniques facilitate the development of a controlled-microstructure coating at a similar cost. Nanoscale physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition offer an alternative approach by allowing the coating of a highly structured surface without significantly affecting the microstructure. Various biomedical studies on each deposition process are reviewed along with applicable results. Suggested directions for future research include further optimization of the process-microstructure relation, crystalline plasma spray coatings, and the deposition of discrete coatings by additive manufacturing.