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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 6849139, 7 pages
Research Article

Development and Characterization of Norite-Based Cementitious Binder from an Ilmenite Mine Waste Stream

1Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
2Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Mahmoud Khalifeh; on.siu@hefilahk.duomham

Received 6 May 2017; Revised 5 July 2017; Accepted 20 July 2017; Published 23 August 2017

Academic Editor: Kedsarin Pimraksa

Copyright © 2017 Mahmoud Khalifeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Norite is a major type of solid waste generated during the production of ilmenite. This study focuses on the usability of norite as a solid precursor of alkali-activated cement. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find the influence of different alkali types and particle sizes of the source material on polycondensation. Norite was ground and mixed with sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions to produce a binder. Potassium-containing systems were more effective compared to sodium-containing systems with respect to strength development. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated formation of zeolites, albite, and oligoclase based on the type of activator and used additives. The patterns also revealed formation of an amorphous phase in the matrices of the binder that was cured at 87°C. Microstructure analysis revealed some degree of crystallization with different Si : Al ratios, which indicated heterogeneity of the binder matrices.