Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6913835, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6913835
Research Article

Dielectric Properties of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid

Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Stephan Krohns; ed.grubsgua-inu.kisyhp@snhork.nahpets

Received 3 April 2017; Revised 30 May 2017; Accepted 18 June 2017; Published 17 July 2017

Academic Editor: Marino Lavorgna

Copyright © 2017 Claudius Dichtl et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. E. Ryan, A. S. Pandit, and D. P. Apatsidis, “Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 27, pp. 3625–3635, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. N. Chia and B. M. Wu, “Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials,” Journal of Biological Engineering, vol. 9, 4 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Zhang, N. C. Anzalone, R. P. Faria, and J. M. Pearce, “Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e59840, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Comina, A. Suska, and D. Filippini, “Low cost lab-on-a-chip prototyping with a consumer grade 3D printer,” Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology, vol. 14, no. 16, pp. 2978–2982, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. K. Moon, Y. E. Tan, J. Hwang, and Y.-J. Yoon, “Application of 3D printing technology for designing light-weight unmanned aerial vehicle wing structures,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing - Green Technology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 223–228, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Pandey, B. Gupta, and A. Nahata, “Terahertz plasmonic waveguides created via 3D printing,” Optics Express, vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24422–24430, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. Symes, P. J. Kitson, J. Yan et al., “Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis,” Nature Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 349–354, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Zhang, B. Wijnen, and J. M. Pearce, “Open-Source 3-D Platform for Low-Cost Scientific Instrument Ecosystem,” Journal of Laboratory Automation, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 517–525, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Pearce, “Return on investment for open source scientific hardware development,” Science and Public Policy, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 192–195, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. T. Pham and R. S. Gault, “A comparison of rapid prototyping technologies,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 38, no. 10-11, pp. 1257–1287, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. S. P. Poh, M. P. Chhaya, F. M. Wunner et al., “Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 107, pp. 228–246, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Auras, B. Harte, and S. Selke, “An overview of polylactides as packaging materials,” Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 835–864, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L.-T. Lim, R. Auras, and M. Rubino, “Processing technologies for poly(lactic acid),” Progress in Polymer Science (Oxford), vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 820–852, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Södergård and M. Stolt, “Properties of lactic acid based polymers and their correlation with composition,” Progress in Polymer Science (Oxford), vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1123–1163, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. J. Leigh, R. J. Bradley, C. P. Purssell, D. R. Billson, and D. A. Hutchins, “A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e49365, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Zuza, J. M. Ugartemendia, A. Lopez, E. Meaurio, A. Lejardi, and J.-R. Sarasua, “Glass transition behavior and dynamic fragility in polylactides containing mobile and rigid amorphous fractions,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 20, pp. 4427–4432, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Kanchanasopa and J. Runt, “Broadband dielectric investigation of amorphous and semicrystalline L-lactide/meso-lactide copolymers,” Macromolecules, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 863–871, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Ren and K. Adachi, “Dielectric relaxation in blends of amorphous poly(DL-lactic acid) and semicrystalline poly(L-lactic acid),” Macromolecules, vol. 36, no. 14, pp. 5180–5186, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. D. Badia, L. Monreal, V. Sáenz De Juano-Arbona, and A. Ribes-Greus, “Dielectric spectroscopy of recycled polylactide,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 107, pp. 21–27, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Hikosaka, H. Ishikawa, and Y. Ohki, “Effects of crystallinity on dielectric properties of poly(L-lactide),” Electronics and Communications in Japan, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. X. Cao, A. Mohamed, S. H. Gordon, J. L. Willett, and D. J. Sessa, “DSC study of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxy ester ether) blends,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 406, no. 1-2, pp. 115–127, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. W. Ehrenstein, Polymer Werkstoffe, Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, München, Germany, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. I. Park and M. Xanthos, “A study on the degradation of polylactic acid in the presence of phosphonium ionic liquids,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 834–844, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Park, J. U. Ha, and M. Xanthos, “Ionic liquids as plasticizers/lubricants for polylactic acid,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1105–1110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Wasserscheid and W. Keim, “Ionic Liquids—New ‘Solutions’ for Transition Metal Catalysis,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 39, no. 21, pp. 3772–3789, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Cai, V. Dave, R. A. Gross, and S. P. McCarthy, “Effects of physical aging, crystallinity, and orientation on the enzymatic degradation of poly(lactic acid),” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 34, no. 16, pp. 2701–2708, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. P. Sippel, V. Dietrich, D. Reuter et al., “Impact of water on the charge transport of a glass-forming ionic liquid,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 223, pp. 635–642, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Inkinen, M. Hakkarainen, A.-C. Albertsson, and A. Södergård, “From lactic acid to poly(lactic acid) (PLA): characterization and analysis of PLA and its precursors,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 523–532, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Sanglard, V. Adamo, J.-P. Bourgeois, T. Chappuis, and E. Vanoli, “Poly(lactic acid) synthesis and characterization,” Chimia International Journal for Chemistry, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 951–954, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. K. Jeszka, L. Pietrzak, M. Pluta, and G. Boiteux, “Dielectric properties of polylactides and their nanocomposites with montmorillonite,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 356, no. 11-17, pp. 818–821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Mijović and J.-W. Sy, “Molecular dynamics during crystallization of poly(L-lactic acid) as studied by broad-band dielectric relaxation spectroscopy,” Macromolecules, vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 6370–6376, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. R. Brás, P. Malik, M. Dionísio, and J. F. Mano, “Influence of crystallinity in molecular motions of poly(L-lactic acid) investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy,” Macromolecules, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 6419–6430, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Ren, O. Urakawa, and K. Adachi, “Dielectric study on dynamics and conformation of poly(D,L-lactic acid) in dilute and semi-dilute solutions,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 847–855, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. P. Johari and M. Goidstein, “Viscous liquids and the glass transition. II. Secondary relaxations in glasses of rigid molecules,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 2372–2388, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Ren, O. Urakawa, and K. Adachi, “Dielectric and viscoelastic studies of segmental and normal mode relaxations in undiluted poly(d,l-lactic acid),” Macromolecules, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 210–219, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Lunkenheimer, S. Krohns, S. Riegg, S. G. Ebbinghaus, A. Reller, and A. Loidl, “Colossal dielectric constants in transition-metal oxides,” European Physical Journal: Special Topics, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 61–89, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Emmert, M. Wolf, R. Gulich et al., “Electrode polarization effects in broadband dielectric spectroscopy,” European Physical Journal B, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 157–165, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Vogel, “The temperature dependence law of the viscosity of fluids,” Physikalische Zeitschrift, vol. 22, pp. 645-646, 1921. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. S. Fulcher, “Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Viscosity of Glasses,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1043–1055, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. A. Angell, “Strong and fragile liquids,” in Relaxations in Complex Systems, K. L. Ngai and G. B. Wright, Eds., pp. 3–11, NRL, Washington, DC, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  41. G. Tammann and W. Hesse, “Die abhängigkeit der viskosität von der temperatur bei unterkühlten flüssigkeiten,” Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1927. View at Google Scholar
  42. P. Sippel, P. Lunkenheimer, S. Krohns, E. Thoms, and A. Loidl, “Importance of liquid fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, Article ID 13922, p. 13922, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus