Table 1: Calculation parameters.

ParametersValue

Grain diameter (m)0.05 [16]
Density (kg/m3)2000.0 [16]
Elastic constant for normal contact (MPa)1 [17]
Elastic constant for tangential contact (MPa)0.29
Damping constant for normal contact0.001 [18]
Damping constant for tangential contact0.0005
Cohesion (Pa)800 [16]
Time step (s)1.0 × 10−4
Particle number57,251