Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2018, Article ID 1390651, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1390651
Research Article

A Simple and Scalable Method for the Preparation of Magnetite/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites under Mild Conditions

1Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi vértanúk tere 1, Szeged 6720, Hungary
2Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic

Correspondence should be addressed to Tamás Szabó; uh.degezs-u.mehc@samatzs

Received 5 September 2017; Accepted 31 October 2017; Published 21 January 2018

Academic Editor: Ilia Ivanov

Copyright © 2018 Tamás Szabó et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Behrens, “Preparation of functional magnetic nanocomposites and hybrid materials: recent progress and future directions,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 877–892, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. D. Q. Chau, C. Ménard-Moyon, K. Kostarelos, and A. Bianco, “Multifunctional carbon nanomaterial hybrids for magnetic manipulation and targeting,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 468, no. 3, pp. 454–462, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Simopoulos, and D. Petridis, “Synthesis and characterization of magnetically modified clay composites,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 2640–2645, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, A. Bakandritsos et al., “Immobilization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on laponite discs—an easy way to biocompatible ferrofluids and ferrogels,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 26, pp. 5418–5428, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Szabó, A. Bakandritsos, V. Tzitzios et al., “Magnetic iron oxide/clay composites: effect of the layer silicate support on the microstructure and phase formation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 28, Article ID 285602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Szabó, E. Tombácz, E. Illés et al., “Enhanced acidity and pH-dependent surface charge characterization of successively oxidized graphite oxides,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 537–545, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. Georgakilas, M. Otyepka, A. B. Bourlinos et al., “Functionalization of graphene: covalent and non-covalent approaches, derivatives and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 6156–6214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Bakandritsos, M. Pykal, P. Błoński et al., “Cyanographene and graphene acid: emerging derivatives enabling high-yield and selective functionalization of graphene,” ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 2982–2991, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Szabó, A. Bakandritsos, V. Tzitzios et al., “Magnetically modified single and turbostratic stacked graphenes from tris (2, 2-bipyridyl) iron (II) ion-exchanged graphite oxide,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 112, no. 46, pp. 14461–14469, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Bashkova and T. J. Bandosz, “Adsorption/reduction of NO2 on graphite oxide/iron composites,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 48, no. 24, pp. 10884–10891, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Shen, Y. Hu, M. Shi, N. Li, H. Ma, and M. Ye, “One step synthesis of graphene oxide–magnetic nanoparticle composite,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 1498–1503, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Arcibar-Orozco, D. A. Giannakoudakis, and T. J. Bandosz, “Effect of Ag containing (nano)particles on reactive adsorption of mustard gas surrogate on iron oxyhydroxide/graphite oxide composites under visible light irradiation,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 303, pp. 123–136, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H.-P. Cong, J.-J. He, Y. Lu, and S.-H. Yu, “Water-soluble magnetic-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets: in situ synthesis and magnetic resonance imaging applications,” Small, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 169–173, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Zhou, Y. Zhu, X. Yang, and C. Li, “One-pot preparation of graphene/Fe3O4 composites by a solvothermal reaction,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2950–2955, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Li, J. Chu, J. Qi, and X. Li, “An easy and novel approach for the decoration of graphene oxide by Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 14, pp. 6059–6062, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Ai, C. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by a solvothermal-synthesized graphene/magnetite composite,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 192, no. 3, pp. 1515–1524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Shen, M. Shi, H. Ma, B. Yan, N. Li, and M. Ye, “Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetic reduced graphene oxide sheets,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 2077–2083, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y.-W. Liu, M.-X. Guan, L. Feng et al., “Facile and straightforward synthesis of superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid composite by a solvothermal reaction,” Nanotechnology, vol. 24, no. 2, Article ID 025604, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Wang, Q. He, H. Qu et al., “Magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites: nanoparticles growth mechanism and property analysis,” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol. 2, no. 44, pp. 9478–9488, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Qian, X. Yang, L. Jiang, C. Zhu, H. Mao, and K. Wang, “Facile preparation of Fe3O4 nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with high peroxidase-like activity for sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of acetylcholine,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 201, pp. 160–166, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Luo, Y. Mu, P. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effect of oxidation degree on the synthesis and adsorption property of magnetite/graphene nanocomposites,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 359, pp. 188–195, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Zhou, H. Song, L. Ma, and X. Chen, “Magnetite/graphene nanosheet composites: interfacial interaction and its impact on the durable high-rate performance in lithium-ion batteries,” RSC Advances, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 782–791, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y.-X. Ma, Y.-F. Li, G.-H. Zhao et al., “Preparation and characterization of graphite nanosheets decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles used in the immobilization of glucoamylase,” Carbon, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 2976–2986, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. He, W. Liu, X. Sun, Q. Chen, X. Wang, and H. Chen, “Fe3O4@graphene oxide composite: a magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of nitroarenes,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 48, pp. 1885–1890, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Zhao, J. Li, S. Zhang, H. Chen, and D. Shao, “Efficient enrichment of uranium(VI) on amidoximated magnetite/graphene oxide composites,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 41, pp. 18952–18959, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Zong, Y. Huang, Y. Zhao et al., “Facile preparation, high microwave absorption and microwave absorbing mechanism of RGO–Fe3O4 composites,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 45, pp. 23638–23648, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. X. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Wang et al., “Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide composite,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 108, pp. 189–195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Chandra, J. Park, Y. Chun, J. W. Lee, I.-C. Hwang, and K. S. Kim, “Water-dispersible magnetite-reduced graphene oxide composites for arsenic removal,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 3979–3986, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Liu, C. Chen, J. Hu, X. Wu, and X. Wang, “Synthesis of magnetite/graphene oxide composite and application for cobalt(II) Removal,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, pp. 25234–25240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. S. Chaudhari, A. P. Pandey, P. O. Patil, A. R. Tekade, S. B. Bari, and P. K. Deshmukh, “Graphene oxide based magnetic nanocomposites for efficient treatment of breast cancer,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 37, pp. 278–285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Yang, Y. Wang, X. Huang et al., “Multi-functionalized graphene oxide based anticancer drug-carrier with dual-targeting function and pH-sensitivity,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 3448–3454, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. R. K. Sasikala, R. G. Thomas, A. R. Unnithan et al., “Multifunctional nanocarpets for cancer theranostics: remotely controlled graphene nanoheaters for thermo-chemosensitisation and magnetic resonance imaging,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID 20543, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Li, S. Zhang, C. Chen et al., “Removal of Cu(II) and fulvic acid by graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 4991–5000, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. X. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma et al., “Superparamagnetic graphene oxide–Fe3O4 nanoparticles hybrid for controlled targeted drug carriers,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 19, pp. 2710–2714, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. He, J. Fan, D. Ma, L. Zhang, C. Leung, and H. L. Chan, “The attachment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles to graphene oxide by covalent bonding,” Carbon, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3139–3144, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Zhang, B. Chen, L. Zhang et al., “Controlled assembly of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles on graphene oxide,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, pp. 1446–1450, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. X. Fan, W. Peng, Y. Li et al., “Deoxygenation of exfoliated graphite oxide under alkaline conditions: a green route to graphene preparation,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 4490–4493, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Szabo, Z. Peter, E. Illes, L. Janovák, and A. Talyzin, “Stability and dye inclusion of graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer self-assembled films in saline, acidic and basic aqueous solutions,” Carbon, vol. 111, pp. 350–357, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Yoon, J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Kim, and J. Lee, “Electrostatic self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on graphene oxides for high capacity lithium-ion battery anodes,” Energies, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 4830–4840, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Jiao, Y. Liu, Y. Wu et al., “Facile and scalable preparation of graphene oxide-based magnetic hybrids for fast and highly efficient removal of organic dyes,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID 12451, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Namvari and H. Namazi, “Clicking graphene oxide and Fe3O4 nanoparticles together: an efficient adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solutions,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1527–1536, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. R. M. Cornell and U. Schwertmann, The Iron Oxides, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1996.
  43. E. Illés, E. Tombácz, M. Szekeres, I. Y. Tóth, Á. Szabó, and B. Iván, “Novel carboxylated PEG-coating on magnetite nanoparticles designed for biomedical applications,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 380, pp. 132–139, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Tombácz, E. Illés, A. Majzik, A. Hajdú, N. Rideg, and M. Szekeres, “Ageing in the inorganic nanoworld: example of magnetite nanoparticles in aqueous medium,” Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 80, pp. 503–515, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  45. D. Nesztor, K. Bali, I. Y. Tóth, M. Szekeres, and E. Tombácz, “Controlled clustering of carboxylated SPIONs through polyethylenimine,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 380, pp. 144–149, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. Y. Tóth, D. Nesztor, L. Novák et al., “Clustering of carboxylated magnetite nanoparticles through polyethylenimine: covalent versus electrostatic approach,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 427, pp. 280–288, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. Tuinstra and J. L. Koenig, “Raman Spectrum of Graphite,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1126–1130, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. A. Gupta, G. Chen, P. Joshi, S. Tadigadapa, and P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering from high-frequency phonons in supported n-graphene layer films,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, pp. 2667–2673, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. P. Vidano, D. B. Fischbach, L. J. Willis, and T. M. Loehr, “Observation of Raman band shifting with excitation wavelength for carbons and graphites,” Solid State Communications, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 341–344, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. C. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects,” Solid State Communications, vol. 143, no. 1-2, pp. 47–57, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Saito, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes,” Advances in Physics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 413–550, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Reich and C. Thomsen, “Raman spectroscopy of graphite,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 362, no. 1824, pp. 2271–2288, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Szabó, O. Berkesi, P. Forgó et al., “Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, pp. 2740–2749, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A.B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, V. Georgakilas, V. Tzitzios, and D. Petridis, “Facile synthesis of capped γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 5250–5256, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Szabó, V. Hornok, R. A. Schoonheydt, and I. Dékány, “Hybrid Langmuir–Blodgett monolayers of graphite oxide nanosheets,” Carbon, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1676–1680, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Y.-H. Lien and T.-M. Wu, “Preparation and characterization of thermosensitive polymers grafted onto silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 326, no. 2, pp. 517–521, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Tombacz, A. Hajdu, E. Illes, K. László, G. Garberoglio, and P. Jedlovszky, “Water in contact with magnetite nanoparticles, as seen from experiments and computer simulations,” Langmuir, vol. 25, pp. 13007–13014, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. J. Hunter, R. H. Ottewill, and R. L. Rowell, Zeta Potential in Colloid Science, Principle and Application, Academic Press, London, UK, 1981.
  59. R. L. D. Whitby, V. M. Gun’ko, A. Korobeinyk et al., “Driving forces of conformational changes in single-layer graphene oxide,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 3967–3973, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L.-Z. Bai, D.-L. Zhao, Y. Xu et al., “Inductive heating property of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 nanoparticles hybrid in an AC magnetic field for localized hyperthermia,” Materials Letters, vol. 68, pp. 399–401, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Ortega and Q. A. Pankhurst, “Magnetic hyperthermia,” in Nanoscience, vol. 1, pp. 60–88, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  62. M. Molcan, H. Gojzewski, A. Skumiel et al., “Energy losses in mechanically modified bacterial magnetosomes,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 49, Article ID 365002, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. Xie, P. Xi, H. Liu et al., “A facile chemical method to produce superparamagnetic graphene oxide-Fe3O4 hybrid composite and its application in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1033–1039, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. N. A. Travlou, G. Z. Kyzas, N. K. Lazaridis, and E. A. Deliyanni, “Functionalization of graphite oxide with magnetic chitosan for the preparation of a nanocomposite dye adsorbent,” Langmuir, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1657–1668, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Dong, H. Zhang, Z. U. Rahman et al., “Graphene oxide–Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites with peroxidase-like activity for colorimetric detection of glucose,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 13, pp. 3969–3976, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Y. Fu, J. Wang, Q. Liu, and H. Zeng, “Water-dispersible magnetic nanoparticle–graphene oxide composites for selenium removal,” Carbon, vol. 77, pp. 710–721, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Zhou, H. Deng, J. Wan, J. Shi, and T. Su, “A solvothermal method to produce RGO-Fe3O4 hybrid composite for fast chromium removal from aqueous solution,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 283, pp. 1024–1031, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus