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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2018, Article ID 3071913, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3071913
Research Article

Carbon Nanotube Fiber Pretreatments for Electrodeposition of Copper

1Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Vuorimiehentie 2, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 4, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Mari Lundström; if.otlaa@mortsdnul.iram

Received 21 September 2017; Revised 3 November 2017; Accepted 3 December 2017; Published 11 February 2018

Academic Editor: Fabrizio Pirri

Copyright © 2018 Pyry-Mikko Hannula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There is increasing interest towards developing carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composites due to potentially improved properties. Carbon nanotube macroscopic materials typically exhibit high resistivity, low electrochemical reactivity, and the presence of impurities, which impede its use as a substrate for electrochemical deposition of metals. In this research, different CNT fiber pretreatment methods, such as heat treatment, immersion in Watts bath, anodization, and exposure to boric acid (H3BO3), were investigated to improve the electrochemical response for copper deposition. It was shown that these treatments affect the surface activity of CNTs, including electrical resistivity, polarization resistance, and active surface area, which influence the electrodeposition process of copper. Properties of CNT structures and CNT-Cu composites were researched by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic copper deposition, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and four-point electrical resistance measurements. Heat treatment, Watts bath, anodization, and boric acid treatments were shown to be effective for modifying the CNT surface reactivity for subsequent electrochemical deposition of copper.