Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4368910, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4368910
Review Article

Hydrogels for the Application of Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering: A Review of Hydrogels

1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, International Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
2Department of Orthopedics, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Shuang Ho Hospital, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Chih-Hwa Chen; moc.rotcod@nehcafa

Received 27 June 2017; Revised 19 December 2017; Accepted 25 December 2017; Published 3 April 2018

Academic Editor: Jun Liu

Copyright © 2018 Er-Yuan Chuang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Censi, A. Dubbini, and P. Matricardi, “Bioactive hydrogel scaffolds-advances in cartilage regeneration through controlled drug delivery,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1545–1555, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Eslahi, M. Abdorahim, and A. Simchi, “Smart polymeric hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering: a review on the chemistry and biological functions,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 3441–3463, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Akkiraju and A. Nohe, “Role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation, progression of osteoarthritis and cartilage regeneration,” Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 177–192, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. B. Carballo, Y. Nakagawa, I. Sekiya, and S. A. Rodeo, “Basic science of articular cartilage,” Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 413–425, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Gao, S. Liu, J. Huang et al., “The ECM-cell interaction of cartilage extracellular matrix on chondrocytes,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 648459, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. F. Bateman, S. R. Lamande, and J. A. Ramshaw, “Collagen superfamily,” in Extracellular Matrix, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 22–67, Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. R. Eyre, “Collagen: molecular diversity in the body’s protein scaffold,” Science, vol. 207, no. 4437, pp. 1315–1322, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. M. Clark, “The organization of collagen in cryofractured rabbit articular cartilage: a scanning electron microscopic study,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17–29, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. C. Clarke, “Articular cartilage: a review and scanning electron microscope study,” Bone & Joint Journal, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 732–750, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  10. V. C. Mow and A. Ratcliffe, “Structure and function of articular cartilage and meniscus,” Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics, vol. 2, pp. 113–177, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. A. Stockwell, Biology of Cartilage Cells, CUP Archive, Cambridge, UK, 1979.
  12. A. J. Sophia Fox, A. Bedi, and S. A. Rodeo, “The basic science of articular cartilage: structure, composition, and function,” Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 461–468, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. A. Ateshian and H. Wang, “A theoretical solution for the frictionless rolling contact of cylindrical biphasic articular cartilage layers,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1341–1355, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Helminen, J. Jurvelin, I. Kiviranta, K. Paukkonen, A. Saamanen, and M. Tammi, “Joint loading effects on articular cartilage: a historical review,” in Joint Loading: Biology and Health of Articular Structures, pp. 1–46, John Wright & Sons, Bristol, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  15. T. Shen, Y. Dai, X. Li, S. Xu, Z. Gou, and C. Gao, “Regeneration of the osteochondral defect by a wollastonite and macroporous fibrin biphasic scaffold,” ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A Årøen, D. G. Jones, and F. H. Fu, “Arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment of cartilage injuries,” Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. B. Hunziker, “Articular cartilage repair: basic science and clinical progress. A review of the current status and prospects,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 432–463, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. Widuchowski, J. Widuchowski, and T. Trzaska, “Articular cartilage defects: study of 25,124 knee arthroscopies,” The Knee, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. E. Outerbridge, “The etiology of chondromalacia patellae,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 43, pp. 752–757, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  20. T. K. Pylawka, R. W. Kang, and B. J. Cole, “Articular cartilage injuries,” Injury, vol. 30, p. 3, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  21. X. Ayral, M. Dougados, V. Listrat et al., “Chondroscopy: a new method for scoring chondropathy,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 289–297, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Recht, J. Kramer, S. Marcelis et al., “Abnormalities of articular cartilage in the knee: analysis of available MR techniques,” Radiology, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 473–478, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. G. Potter, J. M. Linklater, A. A. Allen, J. A. Hannafin, and S. B. Haas, “Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in the knee. An evaluation with use of fast-spin-echo imaging,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1276–1284, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. P. Recht, D. W. Piraino, G. A. Paletta, J. P. Schils, and G. H. Belhobek, “Accuracy of fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo FLASH MR imaging in the detection of patellofemoral articular cartilage abnormalities,” Radiology, vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 209–212, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Kawahara, M. Uetani, N. Nakahara et al., “Fast spin-echo MR of the articular cartilage in the osteoarthrotic knee: correlation of MR and arthroscopic findings,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 120–125, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. Gagliardi, E. Chung, V. Chandnani et al., “Detection and staging of chondromalacia patellae: relative efficacies of conventional MR imaging, MR arthrography, and CT arthrography,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 629–636, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Disler, T. McCauley, C. Kelman et al., “Fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging of hyaline cartilage defects in the knee: comparison with standard MR imaging and arthroscopy,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 127–132, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Bredella, P. Tirman, C. Peterfy et al., “Accuracy of T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging with fat saturation in detecting cartilage defects in the knee: comparison with arthroscopy in 130 patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 172, no. 4, pp. 1073–1080, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Hefti, W. Müller, R. Jakob, and H.-U. Stäubli, “Evaluation of knee ligament injuries with the IKDC form,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, vol. 1, no. 3-4, pp. 226–234, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ferrari, K. Louati, A. Miquel, A. Behin, O. Benveniste, and J. Sellam, “Quickly progressive amyotrophy of the thigh: an unusual cause of rapid chondrolysis of the knee,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 203–205, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Chamberlain, G. Care, and B. Harfield, “Physiotherapy in osteoarthrosis of the knees: a controlled trial of hospital versus home exercises,” International Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 101–106, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Lau, J. Lam, E. Siu, C. Fung, K. Li, and M. Lam, “Physiotherapist-designed aquatic exercise programme for community-dwelling elders with osteoarthritis of the knee: a Hong Kong pilot study,” Hong Kong Medical Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. W. Jackson and C. Dieterichs, “The results of arthroscopic lavage and debridement of osteoarthritic knees based on the severity of degeneration,” Arthroscopy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. M. Brown, C. A. Cipriano, M. Moric, S. M. Sporer, and C. J. Della Valle, “Dilute betadine lavage before closure for the prevention of acute postoperative deep periprosthetic joint infection,” Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. R. Steadman, W. G. Rodkey, S. B. Singleton, and K. K. Briggs, “Microfracture technique for full-thickness chondral defects: technique and clinical results,” Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 300–304, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. K. Mithoefer, R. J. Williams, R. F. Warren et al., “Chondral resurfacing of articular cartilage defects in the knee with the microfracture technique,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 88, pp. 294–304, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. K. Mithoefer, R. J. Williams, R. F. Warren et al., “The microfracture technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the knee,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 1911–1920, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Furukawa, D. R. Eyre, S. Koide, and M. Glimcher, “Biochemical studies on repair cartilage resurfacing experimental defects in the rabbit knee,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 79–89, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Kreuz, M. Steinwachs, C. Erggelet et al., “Results after microfracture of full-thickness chondral defects in different compartments in the knee,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1119–1125, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Shapiro, S. Koide, and M. J. Glimcher, “Cell origin and differentiation in the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 532–553, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Bentley, L. Biant, S. Vijayan, S. Macmull, J. Skinner, and R. Carrington, “Minimum ten-year results of a prospective randomised study of autologous chondrocyte implantation versus mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 504–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Filardo, E. Kon, F. Perdisa, C. Tetta, A. Di Martino, and M. Marcacci, “Arthroscopic mosaicplasty: long-term outcome and joint degeneration progression,” The Knee, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Hangody, G. Vásárhelyi, L. R. Hangody et al., “Autologous osteochondral grafting—technique and long-term results,” Injury, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 14, pp. 889–895, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Erggelet, M. Sittinger, and A. Lahm, “The arthroscopic implantation of autologous chondrocytes for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee joint,” Arthroscopy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 108–110, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. R. Foran, N. M. Brown, C. J. Della Valle, R. A. Berger, and J. O. Galante, “Long-term survivorship and failure modes of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, vol. 471, no. 1, pp. 102–108, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Steele, S. Hutabarat, R. Evans, C. Ackroyd, and J. Newman, “Survivorship of the St. Georg Sled medial unicompartmental knee replacement beyond ten years,” Bone and Joint Journal, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1164–1168, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Bhumiratana, R. E. Eton, S. R. Oungoulian, L. Q. Wan, G. A. Ateshian, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, “Large, stratified, and mechanically functional human cartilage grown in vitro by mesenchymal condensation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 19, pp. 6940–6945, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. A. Ahmed and M. T. Hincke, “Strategies for articular cartilage lesion repair and functional restoration,” Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 305–329, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. B. Goldring, “Update on the biology of the chondrocyte and new approaches to treating cartilage diseases,” Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1003–1025, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Brittberg, “Autologous chondrocyte implantation—technique and long-term follow-up,” Injury, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 40–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Peterson, T. Minas, M. Brittberg, and A. Lindahl, “Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 17–24, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. S. R. Frenkel and P. E. Di Cesare, “Scaffolds for articular cartilage repair,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Lu, X. Zhu, R. G. Valenzuela, B. L. Currier, and M. J. Yaszemski, “Biodegradable polymer scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 391, pp. S251–S270, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. W. J. Li and R. S. Tuan, “Polymeric scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Melrose, C. Chuang, and J. Whitelock, “Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 444–463, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. N. D. Broom and A. Oloyede, “The importance of physicochemical swelling in cartilage illustrated with a model hydrogel system,” Biomaterials, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1179–1188, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Mathiowitz, Encyclopedia of Controlled Drug Delivery, Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  59. O. Wichterle and D. Lim, “Hydrophilic gels for biological use,” Nature, vol. 185, no. 4706, pp. 117-118, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. N. A. Peppas, J. Z. Hilt, A. Khademhosseini, and R. Langer, “Hydrogels in biology and medicine: from molecular principles to bionanotechnology,” Advanced Materials, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1345–1360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Kobayashi and M. Oka, “Characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel artificial articular cartilage prepared by injection molding,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 741–751, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. A. Stammen, S. Williams, D. N. Ku, and R. E. Guldberg, “Mechanical properties of a novel PVA hydrogel in shear and unconfined compression,” Biomaterials, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 799–806, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. C. Cushing and K. S. Anseth, “Hydrogel cell cultures,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, pp. 1133-1134, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. D. Benya and J. D. Shaffer, “Dedifferentiated chondrocytes reexpress the differentiated collagen phenotype when cultured in agarose gels,” Cell, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 215–224, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Yamaoka, H. Asato, T. Ogasawara et al., “Cartilage tissue engineering using human auricular chondrocytes embedded in different hydrogel materials,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 78A, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. Passaretti, R. P. Silverman, W. Huang et al., “Cultured chondrocytes produce injectable tissue-engineered cartilage in hydrogel polymer,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 805–815, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. L. Mauck, M. A. Soltz, C. C. Wang et al., “Functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage through dynamic loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose gels,” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 252–260, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. J. Lammi, “Current perspectives on cartilage and chondrocyte mechanobiology,” Biorheology, vol. 41, no. 3-4, pp. 593–596, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  69. D. A. Ossipov, S. Piskounova, and J. Hilborn, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linkers for in vivo injectable hydrogels,” Macromolecules, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 3971–3982, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Alexander, J. Khan, S. Saraf, and S. Saraf, “Poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 715–729, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. M. Dorsey, J. R. McGarvey, H. Wang et al., “MRI evaluation of injectable hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel therapy to limit ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction,” Biomaterials, vol. 69, pp. 65–75, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. M. Park, J.-A. Yang, H. Jung et al., “In situ supramolecular assembly and modular modification of hyaluronic acid hydrogels for 3D cellular engineering,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 2960–2968, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. J. Bidarra, C. C. Barrias, and P. L. Granja, “Injectable alginate hydrogels for cell delivery in tissue engineering,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1646–1662, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. Wang, Z. Li, M. Khan et al., “Injectable, rapid gelling and highly flexible hydrogel composites as growth factor and cell carriers,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1978–1991, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. J. Sim, T. Thambi, and D. S. Lee, “Heparin-based temperature-sensitive injectable hydrogels for protein delivery,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 3, no. 45, pp. 8892–8901, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Z.-S. Shen, X. Cui, R.-X. Hou, Q. Li, H.-X. Deng, and J. Fu, “Tough biodegradable chitosan–gelatin hydrogels via in situ precipitation for potential cartilage tissue engineering,” RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 69, pp. 55640–55647, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Hong, Y. Gong, C. Gao, and J. Shen, “Collagen-coated polylactide microcarriers/chitosan hydrogel composite: injectable scaffold for cartilage regeneration,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 85A, no. 3, pp. 628–637, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Xie, H. Zhang, X. Li, and Y. Shi, “Entrapment of methyl parathion hydrolase in cross-linked poly(γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 690–697, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Jin, L. M. Teixeira, P. J. Dijkstra et al., “Injectable chitosan-based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 2544–2551, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. A. Amini and L. S. Nair, “Injectable hydrogels for bone and cartilage repair,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 024105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. W. Chow, A. Armgarth, J. P. St-Pierre et al., “Peptide-directed spatial organization of biomolecules in dynamic gradient scaffolds,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1381–1386, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. J. Roberts, R. M. Elder, A. J. Neumann, A. Jayaraman, and S. J. Bryant, “Interaction of hyaluronan binding peptides with glycosaminoglycans in poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1132–1141, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Q. Wang, N. Hughes, S. Cartmell, and N. Kuiper, “The composition of hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering can influence glycosaminoglycan profile,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 19, pp. 86–95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. N. Annabi, K. Tsang, S. M. Mithieux et al., “Highly elastic micropatterned hydrogel for engineering functional cardiac tissue,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 23, no. 39, pp. 4950–4959, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. Hennink and C. F. Van Nostrum, “Novel crosslinking methods to design hydrogels,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, pp. 223–236, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. H.-P. Cong, P. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Stretchable and self-healing graphene oxide–polymer composite hydrogels: a dual-network design,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 3357–3362, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Y. Zhang, F. Wu, M. Li, and E. Wang, “pH switching on-off semi-IPN hydrogel based on cross-linked poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) and linear polyallyamine,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 18, pp. 7695–7700, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. B. Baroli, “Photopolymerization of biomaterials: issues and potentialities in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell encapsulation applications,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 491–499, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. Y. Garcia, R. Collighan, M. Griffin, and A. Pandit, “Assessment of cell viability in a three-dimensional enzymatically cross-linked collagen scaffold,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1991–2001, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. Gupta, K. Vermani, and S. Garg, “Hydrogels: from controlled release to pH-responsive drug delivery,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 569–579, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Z. Wang, X. Hou, Z. Mao, R. Ye, Y. Mo, and D. E. Finlow, “Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycine) via direct melt copolymerization,” Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 791–798, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  92. G. Gorrasi, V. Bugatti, and V. Vittoria, “Pectins filled with LDH-antimicrobial molecules: preparation, characterization and physical properties,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 132–137, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. X. Shu and K. Zhu, “A novel approach to prepare tripolyphosphate/chitosan complex beads for controlled release drug delivery,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. Iizawa, H. Taketa, M. Maruta, T. Ishido, T. Gotoh, and S. Sakohara, “Synthesis of porous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel beads by sedimentation polymerization and their morphology,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 842–850, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. J. Lim, A. Chouai, S.-T. Lo, W. Liu, X. Sun, and E. E. Simanek, “Design, synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of triazine dendrimers bearing paclitaxel using ester and ester/disulfide linkages,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 2154–2161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. C. Gong, S. Shi, P. Dong et al., “Synthesis and characterization of PEG-PCL-PEG thermosensitive hydrogel,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 365, no. 1-2, pp. 89–99, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Richter, “Hydrogels for actuators,” in Hydrogel Sensors and Actuators, pp. 221–248, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  98. W. A. Laftah, S. Hashim, and A. N. Ibrahim, “Polymer hydrogels: a review,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 50, no. 14, pp. 1475–1486, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. L. Serra, J. Doménech, and N. A. Peppas, “Drug transport mechanisms and release kinetics from molecularly designed poly(acrylic acid-g-ethylene glycol) hydrogels,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 31, pp. 5440–5451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. H. Zhang, S. Guo, S. Fu, and Y. Zhao, “A near-infrared light-responsive hybrid hydrogel based on UCST triblock copolymer and gold nanorods,” Polymers, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 238–247, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. N. Kashyap, N. Kumar, and M. R. Kumar, “Hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications,” Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 107–150, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. Khan, M. B. H. Othman, K. A. Razak, and H. M. Akil, “Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of chitosan-PMAA-based dual-responsive hydrogels,” Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 20, no. 10, p. 273, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. E. Ruel-Gariepy and J.-C. Leroux, “In situ-forming hydrogels—review of temperature-sensitive systems,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 409–426, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H.-F. Liang, M.-H. Hong, R.-M. Ho et al., “Novel method using a temperature-sensitive polymer (methylcellulose) to thermally gel aqueous alginate as a pH-sensitive hydrogel,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1917–1925, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. S. Hoffman, ““Intelligent” polymers in medicine and biotechnology,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 645–664, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. X.-Z. Zhang, D.-Q. Wu, and C.-C. Chu, “Synthesis, characterization and controlled drug release of thermosensitive IPN–PNIPAAm hydrogels,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3793–3805, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. L. D. Taylor and L. D. Cerankowski, “Preparation of films exhibiting a balanced temperature dependence to permeation by aqueous solutions—a study of lower consolute behavior,” Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 2551–2570, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. F. Ullah, M. B. H. Othman, F. Javed, Z. Ahmad, and H. M. Akil, “Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: a review,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 57, pp. 414–433, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. Po, “Water-absorbent polymers: a patent survey,” Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C: Polymer Reviews, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 607–662, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. Y. Qiu and K. Park, “Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 321–339, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. L. M. Geever, D. M. Devine, M. J. Nugent et al., “Lower critical solution temperature control and swelling behaviour of physically crosslinked thermosensitive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 2540–2548, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. L. Geever, C. Cooney, D. Devine, S. Devery, M. Nugent, and C. Higginbotham, “Negative temperature sensitive hydrogels in controlled drug delivery,” Macromolecular symposia, vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. Y. H. Bae, T. Okano, R. Hsu, and S. W. Kim, “Thermo-sensitive polymers as on-off switches for drug release,” Die Makromolekulare Chemie, Rapid Communications, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 481–485, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. R. Yoshida, K. Uchida, Y. Kaneko, and K. Sakai, “Comb-type grafted hydrogels with rapid de-swelling response to temperature changes,” Nature, vol. 374, no. 6519, pp. 240–242, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. B. Jeong, S. W. Kim, and Y. H. Bae, “Thermosensitive sol–gel reversible hydrogels,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, pp. 154–162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. N. Peppas, P. Bures, W. Leobandung, and H. Ichikawa, “Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 27–46, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. E. S. Gil and S. M. Hudson, “Stimuli-reponsive polymers and their bioconjugates,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1173–1222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. S. I. Kang and Y. H. Bae, “A sulfonamide based glucose-responsive hydrogel with covalently immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 115–121, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Patel and K. Mequanint, Hydrogel Biomaterials, INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2011, https://www.intechopen.com/.
  120. E. Jabbari and S. Nozari, “Synthesis of acrylic acid hydrogel by y-irradiation cross-linking of polyacrylic acid in aqueous solution,” Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 263–270, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  121. F. Jianqi and G. Lixia, “PVA/PAA thermo-crosslinking hydrogel fiber: preparation and pH-sensitive properties in electrolyte solution,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1653–1658, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. Li, X. Li, X. Ni, X. Wang, H. Li, and K. W. Leong, “Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogels formed by biodegradable PEO–PHB–PEO triblock copolymers and α-cyclodextrin for controlled drug delivery,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 4132–4140, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. J. P. Baker, D. R. Stephens, H. W. Blanch, and J. M. Prausnitz, “Swelling equilibria for acrylamide-based polyampholyte hydrogels,” Macromolecules, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1955–1958, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. N. V. Gupta and H. Shivakumar, “Investigation of swelling behavior and mechanical properties of a pH-sensitive superporous hydrogel composite,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 481, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  125. A. Ariffin, M. Musa, M. Othman, M. Razali, and F. Yunus, “Effects of various fillers on anionic polyacrylamide systems for treating kaolin suspensions,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 441, pp. 306–311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. F. Bossard, T. Aubry, G. Gotzamanis, and C. Tsitsilianis, “pH-Tunable rheological properties of a telechelic cationic polyelectrolyte reversible hydrogel,” Soft Matter, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 510–516, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. Dolatabadi-Farahani, E. Vasheghani-Farahani, and H. Mirzadeh, “Swelling behaviour of alginate-N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan gel beads coated by chitosan,” Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 405, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  128. M. M. Sadat Ebrahimi and H. Schönherr, “Enzyme-sensing chitosan hydrogels,” Langmuir, vol. 30, no. 26, pp. 7842–7850, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Sadeghi and H. Hosseinzadeh, “Synthesis of starch—poly(sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel with salt and pH-responsiveness properties as a drug delivery system,” Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 381–404, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. C. Wang, R. J. Stewart, and J. KopeČek, “Hybrid hydrogels assembled from synthetic polymers and coiled-coil protein domains,” Nature, vol. 397, no. 6718, pp. 417–420, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. J. Yang, C. Xu, C. Wang, and J. Kopeček, “Refolding hydrogels self-assembled from N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide graft copolymers by antiparallel coiled-coil formation,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1187–1195, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. P. Jing, J. S. Rudra, A. B. Herr, and J. H. Collier, “Self-assembling peptide-polymer hydrogels designed from the coiled coil region of fibrin,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 2438–2446, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. Kopeček, “Smart and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. R. V. Ulijn, N. Bibi, V. Jayawarna et al., “Bioresponsive hydrogels,” Materials Today, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 40–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. E. Turan, G. Özçetin, and T. Caykara, “Dependence of protein recognition of temperature-sensitive imprinted hydrogels on preparation temperature,” Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 421–428, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. T. Suri, D. B. Cordes, F. E. Cappuccio, R. A. Wessling, and B. Singaram, “Continuous glucose sensing with a fluorescent thin-film hydrogel,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 42, no. 47, pp. 5857–5859, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. V. L. Alexeev, A. C. Sharma, A. V. Goponenko et al., “High ionic strength glucose-sensing photonic crystal,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 2316–2323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. P.-C. Chen, L.-S. Wan, B.-B. Ke, and Z.-K. Xu, “Honeycomb-patterned film segregated with phenylboronic acid for glucose sensing,” Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 12597–12605, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. Y. Tian, B. R. Shumway, and D. R. Meldrum, “A new cross-linkable oxygen sensor covalently bonded into poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polyacrylamide thin film for dissolved oxygen sensing,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2069–2078, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. J. Kopeček and J. Yang, “Peptide-directed self-assembly of hydrogels,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 805–816, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. A. A. Obaidat and K. Park, “Characterization of protein release through glucose-sensitive hydrogel membranes,” Biomaterials, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 801–806, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus