Table 4: Test results.

SpecimenLoading directionMmax (kN·m)Φmax (rad)Kini (kN·m/rad)

CJ1Push7.580.0375333
Pull−8.65−0.0375
CJ2Push10.20.049221
Pull−7.00−0.0465
CJ3Push11.920.044354
Pull−11.14−0.039

Note. Φmax corresponds to Mmax.