Table 3: Summary of structural characteristics of the tested specimens.

SpecimenStructural characteristicsRemarks

Q-1Without tie columnsControl specimen
K-1Precast concrete tie columns + precast concrete tie beam
Q-2Precast concrete tie columns + precast concrete tie beam + CSRE
Q-5Precast concrete tie columns + one wire tie + CSRE
Q-7Precast concrete tie columns + three wire ties + CSRE