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Anemia
Volume 2012, Article ID 132856, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/132856
Research Article

Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Mutation Analysis by Next-Generation Sequencing

1Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3Leiden Genome Technology Center, Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands

Received 23 December 2011; Accepted 21 March 2012

Academic Editor: Stefan Meyer

Copyright © 2012 Najim Ameziane et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic instability syndrome characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure, and a high cancer risk. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished. The majority of patients (≈85%) belong to the subtypes A (≈60%), C (≈15%) or G (≈10%), while a minority (≈15%) is distributed over the remaining 12 subtypes. All subtypes seem to fit within the “classical” FA phenotype, except for D1 and N patients, who have more severe clinical symptoms. Since FA patients need special clinical management, the diagnosis should be firmly established, to exclude conditions with overlapping phenotypes. A valid FA diagnosis requires the detection of pathogenic mutations in a FA gene and/or a positive result from a chromosomal breakage test. Identification of the pathogenic mutations is also important for adequate genetic counselling and to facilitate prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Here we describe and validate a comprehensive protocol for the molecular diagnosis of FA, based on massively parallel sequencing. We used this approach to identify BRCA2, FANCD2, FANCI and FANCL mutations in novel unclassified FA patients.