Figure 3: The measurement of the V-V angle. Line a indicates the long axis of the tibia. Point b indicates the lateral extremity of the calcaneus at the posterior surface of the talocalcaneal joint. Point c indicates the superior margin of the sustentaculum tali. Angle d is the V-V angle. Figure 3 is reproduced from Takenaka et al. 2015 [8] [under the Creative Commons Attribution License/public domain].