Ethnomedicinal Studies, Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial Activity of the Mammea americana L. Bark in the Municipality of Cértegui, Chocó, ColombiaRead the full article
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Conventional Medicinal Uses, Phytoconstituents, and Biological Activities of Euphorbia officinarum L.: A Systematic Review
The Moroccan endemic plant Euphorbia officinarum is a traditional medicinal plant, known locally as “Daghmus.” Plants in the genus Euphorbia are well known for the chemical diversity of their diterpenoids and isoprenoid constituents, which perform many activities such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as different biological properties, that cannot be overlooked. The effect of bioactive compounds (antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, and antioxidant). Euphorbia officinarum is an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various conditions, including skin and ophthalmological diseases. It is also used against human pathogens (intestinal parasites). E. officinarum latex is the major part of the plant used for conventional medicine and synthesizing new bioactive compounds. The characterization and isolation of its components are necessary to exploiting and enhancing its therapeutic potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no review is available to date. In order to have and define a research question, we adopt a strategy by considering the items of the PRISMA checklist. Therefore, this review aims to cover E. officinarum taxonomy, botanical description, distribution, conventional uses, and phytochemical compounds of this plant, including the biological activities of compounds isolated and of these semisynthesized compounds. This article provides a foundation for any further studies from this plant.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Moroccan Retail Pharmacists towards Veterinary Medicines
This is the first study conducted in Morocco to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of retail pharmacists regarding veterinary medicines. It is a cross-sectional study. Two types of multiple-choice questionnaires were distributed to pharmacists depending on whether or not they dispense veterinary medicines. A total of 143 pharmacists were involved in this study. The percentage of retail pharmacists who dispensed veterinary medicines was estimated at 23.1%. Less than half of respondents were highly satisfied regarding their knowledge of veterinary pharmacy. Besides, 39.4% of retail pharmacists were at ease giving advice in general while dispensing veterinary medicines, and 73% were knowledgeable on parasiticides. Approximately, 94% of retail pharmacists expressed their need to improve their knowledge of veterinary pharmacy. Our study also revealed that 48.5% of pharmacists dispensed veterinary medicine daily. This study demonstrated that involvement of retail pharmacists in dispensing veterinary medicines was poor. The need for training programs on veterinary pharmacy expressed by Moroccan retail pharmacists was high.
Ascorbic Acid Significantly Decreases Creatine Kinase Plasma Levels in an Animal Model of Statin/Fibrate-Induced Myopathy
Background. Myopathy is one of the side effects of lipid-lowering drugs, especially statins and particularly when combined with a fibrate. To diagnose myopathy and determine its severity, the plasma levels of three enzymes, creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), are routinely measured. Physical exercise can aggravate the statin-associated muscular disease. The question is whether antioxidants like ascorbic acid (Vit. C) can prevent such myopathy. Methods. In this experiment, a combination of atorvastatin (ATV, 80 mg/kg/day) and gemfibrozil (GMF, 1000 mg/kg/day) orally for 10 days as well as exercise as forced swimming on days 8, 9, and 10 were used to induce myopathy. Ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg/day, orally) was added to ATV/GMF plus exercise regimen throughout the 10 days in the treatment group. Mean blood levels of CK, aldolase, and LDH were measured in addition to swimming tolerance times. Results. There was a significantly higher swimming tolerance time and lower CK levels in rats receiving ATV/GMF/Vit. C plus exercise compared with rats not taking Vit. C. LDH and aldolase did not decrease significantly. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that Vit. C can be effective in preventing myopathy caused by fat-lowering drugs.
Cytotoxic and Antimigration Activity of Etlingera alba (A.D.) Poulsen Rhizome
Etlingera alba is one of the Etlingera plants that might have anticancer activity. This study aims to investigate the cytotoxic and antimetastatic activity of E. alba rhizome fractions and migration cell assay against MDA-MB-231 cell lines, which are used for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treatment assay. The cytotoxic activity was assayed using CCK-8 assay, while the antimetastatic was assayed using migration cell assay for the fractions A–F. They were followed by LCMS/MS profiling to determine the chemical contents in the most active fraction. According to results obtained, fraction B was the most active fraction for cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 65.43 μg/mL, while fraction E was the most active fraction for antimetastasis activity against migration rate doses of 50, 100, and 200 ppm which were 6.80, 3.66, and 3.00%, respectively. Several compounds in fraction B, such as rengyolone, licochalcone A, sugiol, and spinasterol, might have been known to have activity against cancer cells, as well as aschantin and lirioresinol B dimethyl ether from fraction E. In conclusion, the chemical components from E. alba rhizome fractions provided potency for discovering new agents for cancer treatment, specifically for TNBC.
Syringic Acid Attenuates Cardiomyopathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Objectives. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) has become one of the serious complications in diabetic cases. In this study, we aimed to explore the syringic acid (SYR) protective effect against diabetes-induced cardiac injury in experimental rats. Methods. Rats were divided in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which were subdivided into diabetic controls, and three test groups (SYR at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and the nondiabetic group received 100 mg/kg of SYR. All treatments were given SYR for 6 weeks. SYR effects on cardiac diagnostic markers, heart lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, antioxidant system, and changes of the heart mitochondrial mass and biogenesis were measured. Results. Diabetes induction prompted CK-MB, LDH levels in serum, cardiac catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as cardiac TBARs and carbonylated protein. SYR administration (100 m/kg) attenuated CK-MB and LDH levels. Also, 50 and 100 mg/kg of SYR reduced cardiac TBARs and carbonylated protein in diabetic rats. These treatments did not show any effects on GSH content, mtDNA, and mitochondrial biogenesis indices (PGC1- α, NRF1, NRF2, and TFAM) in heart tissue. Conclusions. SYR treatment showed protective effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats by reducing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. The possible mechanisms could be related to antioxidant activity of this phenolic acid. SYR might play a role of a protective factor in cardiac challenges in diabetes.
Salvia spinosa L. Protects against Diabetes-Induced Nephropathy by Attenuation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in Mice
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is among the most prevalent problems of diabetes, and there hasn’t been an effective treatment for DN yet. This study planned to investigate the effects of Salvia spinosa L. on mitochondrial function along with its protection against streptozotocin-induced nephropathy in diabetic mice. After the injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and verification of the establishment of diabetes, mice (n = 30) were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, diabetic-control, S. spinosa-treated diabetic (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), and metformin-treated diabetic group (500 mg/kg). After four weeks of treatment, the mice were weighed. Blood and kidney tissues were examined for biochemical and histological evaluation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for evaluating renal pathologic damage. Oxidative damage in the kidney was assessed by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. Furthermore, differential centrifugation was used to obtain the isolated mitochondria, and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints (mitochondrial function and mitochondrial oxidative markers) were determined in them. S. spinosa remarkably reduced the blood urea and creatinine concentrations, and also normalized kidney weight/body weight coefficient in the diabetic mice. S. spinosa ameliorated the incidence of glomerular and tubular pathological changes in histological analyses. Moreover, the oxidative and mitochondrial damages were notably attenuated in renal tissues of S. spinosa-treated mice. These results indicate that the methanolic extract of S. spinosa modulates the nephropathy in the diabetic mice by the amelioration of oxidatively induced mitochondrial damage and provides a reliable scientific base, suggesting S. spinosa as a promising alternative remedy against DN.