Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 352753, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/352753
Research Article

CD4 Count Pattern and Demographic Distribution of Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, PMB 21266, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria
3Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, PMB 12003, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria
4Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, PMB 1266, Lagos, Nigeria
5Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, PMB 21266, Lagos, Nigeria

Received 12 January 2012; Revised 24 August 2012; Accepted 26 August 2012

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ippolito

Copyright © 2012 Akinsegun Akinbami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, UNAIDS, and UNICE, 2011 Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access, 2011.
  2. http://naca.gov.ng/.
  3. UNGASS, UNGASS Country Progress Report, Nigeria, 2010.
  4. HIV factsheet, http://photos.state.gov/libraries/nigeria/487468/publications/.
  5. S. C. Johnson and D. R. Kuritzikes, “Monitoring therapy with plasma HIV RNA and CD4 counts,” HIV Advances in Research and Therapy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Egger, M. May, G. Chêne et al., “Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9327, pp. 119–129, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. W. Mellors, A. Muñoz, J. V. Giorgi et al., “Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 12, pp. 946–954, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Lutwama, R. Serwadda, H. Mayanja-Kizza et al., “Evaluation of dynabeads and cytospheres compared with flow cytometry to enumerate CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected ugandans on antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 297–303, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. MacLennan, M. K. P. Liu, S. A. White et al., “Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry in Malawi: diagnostic accuracy study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 335, no. 7612, pp. 190–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Department of Health and Human Services, 2008, http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/.
  11. M. May, J. A. C. Sterne, C. Sabin et al., “Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1185–1197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. A. Lichtenstein, C. Armon, K. Buchacz et al., “Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at CD4 cell counts ≥350 cells/mm3 does not increase incidence or risk of peripheral neuropathy, anemia, or renal insufficiency,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Yarchoan, D. J. Venzon, J. M. Pluda et al., “CD4 count and the risk for death in patients infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 184–189, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. World Health Organization, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescent Recommendation for public health approach, revision, 2010.
  15. M. M. Kitahata, S. J. Gange, A. G. Abraham et al., “Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1815–1826, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. INSIGHT START Trial, http://insight.ccbr.umn.edu/start/.
  17. P. Severe, M. A. J. Juste, A. Ambroise et al., “Early versus standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected adults in Haiti,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 3, pp. 257–265, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 41, no. RR-17, pp. 1–19, 1992, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018871.htm. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. J. J. Palella, K. M. Delaney, A. C. Moorman et al., “Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV outpatient study investigators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 13, pp. 853–860, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. E. Omoti, W. A. Udezi, R. E. Ediose et al., “Haematological aspects of antiretroviral naïve HIV patients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: laboratory and clinical consideration,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 176–180, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. R. Glynn, M. Caraël, B. Auvert et al., “Why do young women have a much higher prevalence of HIV than young men? A study in Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia,” AIDS, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. S51–S60, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. J. Miller, J. R. McGhee, and M. B. Gardner, “Mucosal immunity, HIV transmission, and AIDS,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 129–145, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Akinbami, O. Oshinaike, T. Adeyemo, A. Adediran, O. Dosunmu et al., “Hematologic abnormalties in treatment-naïve HIV patients,” Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment, vol. 3, pp. 45–49, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. K. Oladepo, E. O. Idigbe, R. A. Audu et al., “Establishment of reference values of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets in healthy Nigerian adults,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1374–1377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. Aina, J. Dadik, M. Charurat et al., “Reference values of CD4 T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult Nigerians,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 525–530, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. O. Njoku, N. D. Sirisena, J. A. Idoko, and D. Jelpe, “CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and healthy population in Jos, Nigeria,” The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 135–139, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. B. Tugume, E. M. Piwowar, T. Lutalo et al., “Hematological reference ranges among healthy Ugandans,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 233–235, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Prins, J. R. Robertson, R. P. Brettle et al., “Do gender differences in CD4 cell counts matter?” AIDS, vol. 13, no. 17, pp. 2361–2364, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. WHO, UNAIDS, and UNICEF, “Towards Universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector,” 2010.
  30. WHO, UNAIDS, and UNICEF, “Towards Universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector,” 2007.
  31. National Agency for the control of AIDS (NACA), National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF) 2010–2015, December 2009.
  32. UNAIDS 2008, Report on the global AIDS epidermic, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.