Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 581531, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/581531
Clinical Study

Comparison of the Minimental State Examination Scale and the International HIV Dementia Scale in Assessing Cognitive Function in Nigerian HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

1Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Nigeria
2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Nigeria
3College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Idi-Araba, Nigeria

Received 12 January 2012; Revised 24 August 2012; Accepted 26 August 2012

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ippolito

Copyright © 2012 O. Olajumoke Oshinaike et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Antinori, G. Arendt, J. T. Becker et al., “Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders,” Neurology, vol. 69, no. 18, pp. 1789–1799, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Wong, R. Robertson, N. Nakasujja et al., “HIV-associated neurological complications among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda,” Neurology, vol. 62, p. 444, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. Sacktor, “The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Sacktor, R. H. Lyles, R. Skolasky et al., “HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990–1998,” Neurology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 257–260, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. C. McArthur, “HIV dementia: an evolving disease,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 157, no. 1-2, pp. 3–10, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration, “Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies,” The Lancet, vol. 372, pp. 293–299, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. P. Woods, D. J. Moore, E. Weber, and I. Grant, “Cognitive neuropsychology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 152–168, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. R. Robertson, M. Smurzynski, T. D. Parsons et al., “The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 1915–1921, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. A. Cysique, P. Maruff, and B. J. Brew, “Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 350–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Simioni, M. Cavassini, J. M. Annoni et al., “Cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients despite long-standing suppression of viremia,” AIDS, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1243–1250, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. A. Childs, R. H. Lyles, O. A. Selnes et al., “Plasma viral load and CD4 lymphocytes predict HIV-associated dementia and sensory neuropathy,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 607–613, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. C. McArthur, D. R. Hoover, H. Bacellar et al., “Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors,” Neurology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2245–2252, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. S. Janssen, O. C. Nwanyanwu, R. M. Selik, and J. K. Stehr-Green, “Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy in the United States,” Neurology, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1472–1476, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Chiesi, A. C. Seeber, L. G. Dally, M. Floridia, G. Rezza, and S. Vella, “AIDS dementia complex in the Italian National AIDS Registry: temporal trends (1987–93) and differential incidence according to mode of transmission of HIV-1 infection,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 144, no. 1-2, pp. 107–113, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. J. Von Giesen, H. Köller, A. Theisen, and G. Arendt, “Therapeutic effects of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on the central nervous system in HIV-1-infected patients,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 363–367, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. C. Sacktor, R. H. Lyles, R. L. Skolasky et al., “Combination antiretroviral therapy improves psychomotor speed performance in HIV-seropositive homosexual men,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1640–1647, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Chang, T. Ernst, M. Leonido-Yee et al., “Highly active antiretroviral therapy reverses brain metabolite abnormalities in mild HIV dementia,” Neurology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 782–789, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. S. Jansen, O. R. Cornblath, L. G. Epstein et al., “Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurological manifestations of HIV-1 infection. Report of a working group of the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force,” Neurology, vol. 41, pp. 778–785, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  19. C. Power, O. A. Selnes, J. A. Grim, and J. C. McArthur, “HIV Dementia Scale: a rapid screening test,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 273–278, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. C. Sacktor, M. Wong, N. Nakasujja et al., “The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia,” AIDS, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1367–1374, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Matthews, R. Marioni, and C. Brayne, “Cognitive Function and Ageing Study MR. Examining the influence of gender, education, social class and birth cohort on MMSE tracking over time: a population-based prospective cohort study,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 45, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. V. Valcour, P. Sithinamsuwan, S. Letendre, and B. Ances, “Pathogenesis of HIV in the central nervous system,” Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. K. Njamnshi, V. D. P. Djientcheu, J. Y. Fonsah, F. N. Yepnjio, D. M. Njamnshi, and W. F. Muna, “The international HIV dementia scale is a useful screening tool for HIV-associated dementia/cognitive impairment in HIV-infected adults in Yaoundé—cameroon,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 393–397, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. E. Lyon, R. McCarter, and L. J. D'Angelo, “Detecting HIV associated neurocognitive disorders in adolescents: what is the best screening tool?” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 133–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. A. Ganasen, D. Fincham, J. Smit, S. Seedat, and D. Stein, “Utility of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) in identifying HIV dementia in a South African sample,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 269, no. 1-2, pp. 62–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus