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Advances in Virology
Volume 2011, Article ID 268214, 6 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody in HIV-1-Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection

1HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA
2AIDS Research and Retrovirus Discovery, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA
3Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
4Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
5Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University Chicago, IL 60611, USA
6Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Received 20 June 2011; Revised 8 August 2011; Accepted 22 August 2011

Academic Editor: Arifa S. Khan

Copyright © 2011 J. Spindler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV) was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs) and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA). Although 9 of 332 (2.7%) samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.