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Advances in Virology
Volume 2011, Article ID 432837, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/432837
Review Article

XMRV Discovery and Prostate Cancer-Related Research

1Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
2Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
3Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA

Received 28 March 2011; Accepted 25 May 2011

Academic Editor: Arifa S. Khan

Copyright © 2011 David E. Kang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in 2006 in a study of human prostate cancer patients with genetic variants of the antiviral enzyme, RNase L. Subsequent investigations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have either observed or failed to detect XMRV in patients (prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome-myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS-ME), and immunosuppressed with respiratory tract infections) or normal, healthy, control individuals. The principal confounding factors are the near ubiquitous presence of mouse-derived reagents, antibodies and cells, and often XMRV itself, in laboratories. XMRV infects and replicates well in many human cell lines, but especially in certain prostate cancer cell lines. XMRV also traffics to prostate in a nonhuman primate model of infection. Here, we will review the discovery of XMRV and then focus on prostate cancer-related research involving this intriguing virus.