Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript

Author Guidelines

Language Editing

Hindawi has partnered with Editage to provide an English-language editing service to authors prior to submission. Authors that wish to use this service will receive a 10% discount on all editing services provided by Editage. To find out more information or get a quote, please click here.


Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript through the online Manuscript Tracking System. Only electronic PDF (.pdf) or Word (.doc, .docx, .rtf) files can be submitted through the MTS, and there is no page limit. Submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be accepted. The submitting author takes responsibility for the manuscript during submission and peer review. If for some technical reason submission through the MTS is not possible, the author can contact for support.

Terms of Submission

Manuscripts must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere and are only being considered by this journal. The submitting author is responsible for ensuring that the article’s publication has been approved by all the other coauthors. It is also the submitting author’s responsibility to ensure that the article has all necessary institutional approvals. Only an acknowledgment from the editorial office officially establishes the date of receipt. Further correspondence and proofs will be sent to the author(s) before publication, unless otherwise indicated. It is a condition of submission that the authors permit editing of the manuscript for readability. All inquiries concerning the publication of accepted manuscripts should be addressed to All submissions are bound by the Hindawi terms of service.

Peer Review

All manuscripts are subject to peer review and are expected to meet the standards of academic excellence. If approved by the editor, submissions will be considered by peer reviewers, whose identities will remain anonymous to the authors.

Our Research Integrity team will occasionally seek advice outside standard peer review, for example, on submissions with serious ethical, security, biosecurity, or societal implications. We may consult experts and the academic editor before deciding on appropriate actions, including but not limited to: recruiting reviewers with specific expertise, assessment by additional editors, and declining to further consider a submission.

Concurrent Submissions

In order to ensure sufficient diversity within the authorship of the journal, authors will be limited to having two manuscripts under review at any point in time. If an author already has two manuscripts under review in the journal, they will need to wait until the review process of at least one of these manuscripts is complete before submitting another manuscript for consideration. This policy does not apply to Editorials or other non-peer reviewed manuscript types.

Article Processing Charges

The journal is Open Access. Article Processing Charges (APCs) allow the publisher to make articles immediately available online to anyone to read and reuse upon publication. For more details, please visit the Article Processing Charges information page.

Units of Measurement

Units of measurement should be presented simply and concisely using the International System of Units (SI).

Article Types

The journal will consider the following article types:

Research Articles

Research articles should present the results of an original research study. These manuscripts should describe how the research project was conducted and provide a thorough analysis of the results of the project. Systematic reviews may be submitted as research articles.

Clinical Studies

A clinical study presents the methodology and results of a study that was performed within a clinical setting. These studies include both clinical trials and retrospective analyses of a body of existing cases. In all cases, clinical studies should include a description of the patient group that was involved, along with a thorough explanation of the methodology used in the study and the results that were obtained.

When publishing clinical trials, Hindawi aims to comply with the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) on trial registration. Therefore, authors are requested to register the clinical trial presented in the manuscript in a public trial registry and include the trial registration number at the end of the abstract. Trials initiated after July 1, 2005, must be registered prospectively before patient recruitment has begun. For trials initiated before July 1, 2005, the trial must be registered before submission.


A review article provides an overview of the published literature in a particular subject area.


An optional research article manuscript template can be downloaded here. We recommend that all manuscripts follow the structure below:

Title and Authorship Information
The following information should be included:
  • Manuscript title
  • Full author names
  • Full institutional mailing addresses
  • Email addresses

The manuscript should contain an abstract. The abstract should be self-contained, citation-free, and should not exceed 200 words.


This section should be succinct, with no subheadings.

Materials and Methods

This part should contain sufficient detail that would enable all procedures to be repeated. It can be divided into subsections if several methods are described.

Results and Discussion

This section may be divided into subsections or may be combined.

Main Text (Review only)

This section may be divided into subsections or may be combined.


This should clearly explain the main conclusions of the article, highlighting its importance and relevance.

Data Availability (excluding Review articles)

This section should describe how readers may access the data underlying the findings of the study.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors must declare all relevant interests that could be perceived as conflicting. Authors should explain why each interest may represent a conflict. If no conflicts exist, the authors should state this. Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests.

Funding Statement

Authors should state how the research described in their article was funded, including grant numbers if applicable.


All acknowledgments (if any) should be included at the very end of the manuscript before the references. Anyone who made a contribution to the research or manuscript, but who is not a listed author, should be acknowledged (with their permission).


Authors may submit their references in any style. If accepted, these will be reformatted in Chicago style by Hindawi. Authors are responsible for ensuring that the information in each reference is complete and accurate. All references should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation. Citations of references in the text should be identified using numbers in square brackets e.g., “as discussed by Smith [9]”; “as discussed elsewhere [9, 10]”. All references should be cited within the text and uncited references will be removed.

Preparation of Figures

Upon submission of an article, authors should include all figures and tables in the PDF file of the manuscript. Figures and tables should not be submitted in separate files. If the article is accepted, authors will be asked to provide the source files of the figures. Each figure should be supplied in a separate electronic file. All figures should be cited in the manuscript in a consecutive order. Figures should be supplied in either vector art formats (Illustrator, EPS, WMF, FreeHand, CorelDraw, PowerPoint, Excel, etc.) or bitmap formats (Photoshop, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, etc.). Bitmap images should be of 300 dpi resolution at least unless the resolution is intentionally set to a lower level for scientific reasons. If a bitmap image has labels, the image and labels should be embedded in separate layers.

Preparation of Tables

Tables should be cited consecutively in the text. Every table must have a descriptive title and if numerical measurements are given, the units should be included in the column heading. Vertical rules should not be used.

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary materials are the additional parts to a manuscript, such as audio files, video clips, or datasets that might be of interest to readers. Authors can submit one file of supplementary material along with their manuscript through the Manuscript Tracking System. If there is more than one file, they can be uploaded as a .ZIP file.

A section titled “Supplementary Material” should be included before the references list with a concise description for each supplementary material file. Supplementary materials are not modified by our production team. Authors are responsible for providing the final supplementary materials files that will be published along with the article.


Corrected proofs must be returned to the publisher within two to three days of receipt. The publisher will do everything possible to ensure prompt publication.

Copyright and Permissions

Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.

The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.

While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

Data Availability

Hindawi encourages all authors to share the data underlying the findings of their manuscripts. Data sharing allows researchers to verify the results of an article, replicate the analysis, and conduct secondary analyses.

Hindawi requires authors to include a “Data Availability” statement with all manuscripts. This statement should describe how readers can access the data supporting the conclusions of the study, and clearly outline the reasons why unavailable data cannot be released.

If the authors use third party data from another source and therefore do not own the data themselves, this source must be credited as appropriate.

When the data are not freely available, the authors should provide an explanation and details of any restrictions on access.

Acceptable justifications for restricting access may include legal and ethical concerns, such as third-party rights, patient privacy, and commercial confidentiality.

Authors may choose to make data available upon request, through a data access committee, institutional review board, or the authors themselves. They should name who should be contacted to request the data (e.g., the ethics or data access committee) and provide appropriate details.

Authors should follow any mandates or restrictions on data sharing set out by their institutions and funding agencies. If the data belong to an institution or third party, the author must secure permission to publish and/or share the data and provide appropriate attribution. Authors should anonymize data to protect privacy, where necessary.

Authors may include some data within the article, for example in tables or supplementary files, but Hindawi prefers that comprehensive data sets are also deposited in an appropriate public repository. Suitable repositories allow data to be hosted and shared in machine-readable formats, enabling compatibility, preservation, discovery, and reuse. Laboratory websites or personal data stores are not sufficient for these purposes. The authors should cite the deposited dataset within the article.

Authors may search for an appropriate repository at:

If datasets are critical for the review process, authors must provide them to the editor upon request, regardless of whether the authors intend to share them more widely upon publication.

We provide some illustrative examples of “Data Availability” statements below. This list is not exhaustive, and authors may find that they require a statement different from the samples listed here:

“The genotyping data generated during this study have been deposited in the Dryad Digital Repository (Doi:10.5061/dryad.xxxxx) [1]. All other data arising from this study are contained within the manuscript and supplementary information files.”

In the reference list: [1] A. N. Author, B. N. Author, C. N. Author et al., “Dataset title,” Dryad Digital Repository, Doi:10.5061/dryad.xxxxx, 2016.

“The data used to support the findings of this study were provided by xxxxxx under license, and so cannot be made freely available. Access to these data will be considered by the author upon request, with permission of xxxxx.”

“The datasets used to support this study are currently under embargo while the research findings are commercialized. Requests for data, 12 months after initial publication, will be considered by the corresponding author.”

Funding Statement

Authors must state how the research and publication of their article was funded, by naming financially supporting body(s) (written out in full) followed by associated grant number(s) in square brackets (if applicable), for example: “This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the National Science Foundation [grant number zzzz]; and a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant”.

If the research did not receive specific funding, but was performed as part of the employment of the authors, please name this employer. If the funder was involved in the manuscript writing, editing, approval, or decision to publish, please declare this.

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest (COIs, also known as ‘competing interests’) occur when issues outside research could be reasonably perceived to affect the neutrality or objectivity of the work or its assessment. For more information, see our publication ethics policy. Authors must declare all potential interests – whether or not they actually had an influence – in a ‘Conflicts of Interest’ section, which should explain why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state “The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.” Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests. Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Authors must declare current or recent funding (including for Article Processing Charges) and other payments, goods or services that might influence the work. All funding, whether a conflict or not, must be declared in the “Funding Statement”. The involvement of anyone other than the authors who 1) has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) is affiliated to an organization with such an interest; or 3) was employed or paid by a funder, in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript, or the decision to publish must be declared.

Microarray Data Submission

Before publication, the microarray data should be deposited in an appropriate database such as Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) or Array Express, and an entry name or accession number must be included in the manuscript prior to its publication. Microarray data should be MIAME compliant. During the reviewing process, submitting authors are committed to provide the editor and the reviewers handling his/her manuscript with the login information by which they can access this information in the database.

Small Molecule Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Data

We recommend the use of SHELXL (2014 or later) for data processing, which embeds both the results file and structure factors into the finalized crystallographic information file (CIF) (see for more information).

We strongly encourage that all new small molecule single crystal X-ray diffraction data be deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC; prior to submission of your article. The CCDC number(s) assigned to your structure(s) should be listed in the “Data Availability” statement, which permits retrieval of the crystallographic data for peer review purposes, and allows readers to find them once the article is published.

We would also ask you to check the integrity of your data using the IUCr's checkCIF service (available here:, and address significant unresolved problems (typically all A- and B-alerts) in the Validation Response Form portion of the CIF. The generation of the checkCIF report and the response to A- and B-alerts can also all be done through the deposition to the CCDC.

If you choose to not deposit your data in the CCDC prior to submission, you must upload your CIF (and RES and HKL/FCF files if necessary), along with a PDF of the checkCIF report (link above) as Supporting Information, at the same as uploading your manuscript. At acceptance, you should then submit your crystal data to an appropriate repository, and update the “Data Availability” statement in your manuscript to indicate how authors can retrieve the data.

The Data Availability section should reference crystallographic data in the following format: “Crystallographic data for the structures reported in this manuscript have been deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre under the CCDC numbers: xxxxxx (Compound name 1), xxxxxx (Compound name 2), and xxxxxx (Compound name 3). Copies of these data can be obtained free of charge from”

Ethical Guidelines

In any studies on human or animal subjects, the following ethical guidelines must be observed. For any experiments on humans, all work must be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Manuscripts describing experimental work which carries a risk of harm to human subjects must include a statement that the experiment was conducted with the human subjects’ understanding and consent, as well as a statement that the responsible Ethical Committee has approved the experiments. In the case of any animal experiments, the authors must provide a full description of any anesthetic or surgical procedure used, as well as evidence that all possible steps were taken to avoid animal suffering at each stage of the experiment.