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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010, Article ID 268436, 8 pages
Review Article

Cytokines and Chemokines in Neuropsychiatric Syndromes of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo 162-0054, Japan
2Minami-Otsuka Institute of Technology, Minami-Otsuka Clinic, Tokyo 170-0005, Japan

Received 9 February 2010; Accepted 21 May 2010

Academic Editor: Brian Poole

Copyright © 2010 Hiroshi Okamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a life-threatening disorder and early diagnosis and proper treatment are critical in the management of this neuropsychiatric manifestations in lupus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), neuropsychological tests, and lumbar puncture are clinical used for the diagnosis of NPSLE. In addition to these tests, cytokine and chemokine levels in CSF have been reported as useful diagnostic marker of NPSLE. Based on the number of recently published studies, this review overviewed the roles of cytokines and chemokines in NPSLE.