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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010, Article ID 321082, 9 pages
Review Article

Genetic Risk for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic Review

1Department of Mother-Child and Biology-Genetics, Section of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Piazzale L. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy
2Department of Mother and Child and Biology-Genetics, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy
3Division of Neonatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome 00168, Italy
4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Immunohematology and Transfusion Center, University Hospital of Parma, Parma 43121, Italy
5Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University of Cagliari, Cagliari 09124, Italy

Received 31 July 2009; Accepted 25 February 2010

Academic Editor: Wenjiang J. Fu

Copyright © 2010 M. Zaffanello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30–40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and to predict genetic recurrences in their offspring. Six out of 14 genes investigated in humans may be associated with susceptibility to recurrent UTI in humans. In particular, the HSPA1B, CXCR1 & 2, TLR2, TLR4, TGF- 𝛽 1 genes seem to be associated with an alteration of the host response to UTIs at various levels.